The European race formed from proto-European peoples migrating into the western landmass of Eurasia; they later were isolated from other races by natural barriers such as the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea, and the Siberian wastelands. This isolation created a distinct genetic group inside Europe.
The Europeans (Whites) are a major race. They are the indigenous peoples of Europe and also have descendants living around the world, including in the Americas, Oceania, Siberia and South Africa. The European peoples are known for the creating the civilisations of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome as well as for creating most of the known scientific and technological advances.
Terms such as Caucasoids or Caucasians are sometimes used as synonyms for Europeans but properly refer to a larger racial group (which includes Europeans).
Genetic studies have found evidence for three ancestral populations of present day Europeans: ancient European hunter-gatherers, early European farmer (who migrated from the origin of agriculture in the Near East around 10,000 years ago), and ancient north Eurasians (who started migrating around 5,000 years ago).
The ancient north Eurasians may be the group who according to the Kurgan hypothesis lived in the Russian steppe, spoke the first Indo-European language, and who caused the spread of many new technologies and new cultural/religious institutions over Europe.
A minority view is that it was the early European farmer who spread the Indo-European languages.
Aryan is a term that early Indo-European speakers used to designate themselves.
That Europeans thousands of years ago had ancestors from somewhat different groups (but still related West Eurasian groups) has sometimes been argued to be an argument against Europeans being a race. Regarding this, see Race: Mixed race groups.
"Coon, Garn, and Birdsell (1950), Cole (1965), and a number of other anthropologists have sub-divided the Europeans into seven sub-races consisting of the Mediterranean peoples of Spain, Italy, and southeast Europe; the Alpine peoples of France and central and southern Germany; the Nordic peoples of England, the east of Ireland, and Scotland, the Netherlands, Belgium and Northern Germany, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Western Finland; the Celtic peoples of Wales, the west of Ireland, and the western highlands of Scotland; the Dinaric peoples of east-central Europe; the Slavic peoples of northern Poland, the Baltic states, and Russia west of the Urals; and the Basques of northern Spain and southwest France."
- Human Accomplishment: The Pursuit of Excellence in the Arts and Sciences, 800 B.C. to 1950 - A survey of outstanding contributions to the arts and sciences from ancient times to the mid-twentieth century.
- Solutrean hypothesis
- Ben Klassen
- White nationalism
- Andrew Hamilton:
- What Makes Western Culture Unique?
- It’s a Wonderful Race - A story about the European race's achievements.
- European Prehistory, Anthropology & Genetics
- "Race, Identity, Community" by Lucian Tudor
- "Ethnic & Racial Relations: Ethnic States, Separatism, & Mixing" by Lucian Tudor
- The History of the White Race
- More genetic maps of Europe
- European population substructure
- The Genetic Map of Europe
- A genetic map of West Eurasians
- Really fine grained genetic maps of Europe
- ↑ Nelis M, Esko T, Mägi R, Zimprich F, Zimprich A, Toncheva D, et al. (2009) Genetic Structure of Europeans: A View from the North–East. PLoS ONE 4(5): e5472. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005472 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0005472
- ↑ Seldin MF, Shigeta R, Villoslada P, Selmi C, Tuomilehto J, et al. (2006) European Population Substructure: Clustering of Northern and Southern Populations. PLoS Genet 2(9): e143. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0020143 http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pgen.0020143
- ↑ Pickrell JK, Pritchard JK (2012) Inference of Population Splits and Mixtures from Genome-Wide Allele Frequency Data. PLoS Genet 8(11): e1002967. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002967 http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pgen.1002967
- ↑ Tian, Chao, et al. "European population genetic substructure: further definition of ancestry informative markers for distinguishing among diverse European ethnic groups." Mol Med 15.11-12 (2009): 371-383. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2730349/
- ↑ Lazaridis I, Patterson N, Mittnik A, Renaud G, Mallick S, Kirsanow K et al. (2014) Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans. Nature 513 (7518):409-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature13673 http://pubmed.gov/25230663
- ↑ Fernández E, Pérez-Pérez A, Gamba C, Prats E, Cuesta P, et al. (2014) Ancient DNA Analysis of 8000 B.C. Near Eastern Farmers Supports an Early Neolithic Pioneer Maritime Colonization of Mainland Europe through Cyprus and the Aegean Islands. PLoS Genet 10(6): e1004401. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004401. http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1004401
- ↑ The past is another country http://www.evoandproud.blogspot.de/search/label/neolithichttp://www.evoandproud.blogspot.de/2015/08/the-past-is-another-country.html
- ↑ Replacement or continuity? http://www.evoandproud.blogspot.de/2014/02/replacement-or-continuity.html
- ↑ Were native Europeans replaced? http://www.evoandproud.blogspot.de/2011/12/were-native-europeans-replaced.html
- ↑ Bouckaert R, Lemey P, Dunn M, Greenhill SJ, Alekseyenko AV, Drummond AJ et al. (2012) Mapping the origins and expansion of the Indo-European language family.] Science 337 (6097):957-60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1219669 http://pubmed.gov/22923579
- ↑ Lynn, Richard. (2006). Race Differences in Intelligence: An Evolutionary Analysis. Augusta, GA: Washington Summit Publishers.