The French Revolution in San Domingo
|The French Revolution in San Domingo|
Cover of the 2011 Wermod & Wermod-edition
|Author(s)||Lothrop Stoddard, Kevin MacDonald (introduction)|
|Cover artist||Alex Kurtagic|
|Publisher||The Palingenesis Project|
The French Revolution in San Domingo is a 454 page long book written by North-American lawyer and historian Dr. Theodor Lothrop Stoddard. The introduction of the book is written by North-American professor of psychology Dr. Kevin MacDonald (among other things known as the author of the book The Culture of Critique). The book was originally published in 1914 as the author's doctoral thesis at Harvard University, but Wermod & Wermod Publishing Group have through their imprint The Palingenesis Project updated the text by adding contemporary bibliographical data, footnotes, index, quotations and corrected some spelling errors in their new 2011-edition.
The book chronicles the French Revolution's effects upon the then French colony of San Domingo (today known as Haiti). When the revolution swept the mother country France, the White colonists discovered they were to end up as one of the large points of discussion in revolutionary France, and that they would be the first guinea pigs of the attempt to enforce reality to fall in line with the principles of the revolution. The handling of the crisis by the colonists, the hostility against them from mainland France and the revolutionary spirit in the air were eventually to lead to a full-on racial war on the island, with the resulting eventual fall of the entire colony after the mass-murder of the entire White and Mulatto populations at the hands of the Black slaves and their descendants. Still, Stoddard is no defender of the French colonial strategy, but contrarily a supremely neutral chronicler that makes it perfectly clear that the French were the architects of their own destruction.
From the book's cover
"Originally published in 1914, this was Lothrop Stoddard's first book, and a very popular one in its day. It was also his PhD thesis, defended at Harvard University at a time when the science of human biodiversity, and eugenics, was at its height. The book is about race: specifically, the race war that took place in San Domingo during the 1790s, triggered by the revolutionary events in France; that resulted in the island's independence, following fifteen years of chaos and bloody conflict; and that, through the victory of the values of liberty, equality, and brotherhood so ardently desired by the Jacobins, resulted in the famously dysfunctional republic of Haiti we know today. Stoddard details not only the events that took place in what was once one of the most prosperous colonies in the New World, but also the complex dynamics resulting from the intersection of race, class, colony, and motherland. Stoddard's portrayal of the Whites is hardly flattering, and it becomes clear in his text how they were the architects of their own misfortunes. Could what happened then and there happen here sometime in the future? Can we legitimately draw parallels between this lost colony and the modern West? This is for the reader to decide. This new 2011 edition will come in both hardback and paperback formats, complete with a added index (the original text never had one), additional footnotes, modernised references footnote and format, an introduction by Professor Kevin MacDonald, and specially commissioned cover artwork by Alex Kurtagic (Mister, The Revolt Against Civilization)"
"Theodor Lothrop Stoddard, PhD (Harv.) (June 29, 1883 – May 1, 1950) was an American political scientist, historian, journalist, anthropologist, eugenicist, pacifist, and anti-immigration advocate. A popular author and journalist until World War II, he is known for books like The French Revolution in San Domingo (1914), The Rising Tide of Colour Against White World-Supremacy (1920), New Worlds of Islam (1921), The Revolt Against Civilization (1922), and Into the Darkness (1940)."
"One might justifiably see in Stoddard's book an early study of the metastatic character of insurrectionary fervor. This alone recommends its pages to critical attention...In rehearsing the story of San Domingo's protracted agony, Stoddard editorializes minimally and with noticeable restraint...One struggles to pin down Stoddard using contemporary political designations. It is not so much that in rehearsing the facts he chooses what, in contemporary terms, would be unmentionable; it is that he steadfastly refuses to choose sides, telling a story in which angels and devils play no role, but merely men of every hue prone to wickedness." - Thomas F. Bertonneau, Visiting Professor of English at the State University of New York College, Oswego, New York
"Lothrop Stoddard (1883-1950) is not as well remembered as Du Bois and his name is usually paired with words like “racist” and “white supremacist,” but perhaps a better word would be prophet." - James P. Lubinaskas, contributing editor at American Renaissance.
"Everyone accepts that it’s OK to read great thinkers of the past, like Aristotle, Hobbes, or Marx, who believed in things-slavery, absolutism, communism-that we abjure today.
But strangely, when it comes to the great racial thinkers of the past, this rule is suspended. So complete has been their effacement by the liberal establishment, so far beyond the pale of legitimate opinion have they been pushed, that it’s almost unnecessary to repress them anymore.
But in their day these men were best-selling authors and respected scholars. They produced some serious thinking on race that I have recently been trying to rediscover. The first of my rediscoveries: Lothrop Stoddard." - Robert Locke, former associate editor at FrontPageMagazine.com
- FOREWORD BY KEVIN MACDONALD xv
- NOTE ON THE TEXT xxxi
- PREFACE xxxv
- I. INTRODUCTION AND EARLY HISTORY 1
- Approach to San Domingo. Area. Spanish Conquest. The Buccaneers. Their Impress on San Domingo.
- II. NATURAL FEATURES, POPULATION, AND GOVERNMENT 7
- Contrast of French and Spanish San Domingo. French San Domingo: The North; The West; The South. Population. Climate. Government. Confusion of Powers. Character. The Judiciary. Economic Situation of San Domingo. Trade with France. The "Pacte Coloniale." Its Results.
- III. THE WHITES 23
- Complex Structure of the White Population. Europeans and Creoles. Sterility. The Official Caste. The Nobility. The Clergy. Irreligion. The Middle Class. The "Petits Blancs." The Creoles. Wealth and Luxury. Consequences. Town Life. Country Life. The "Legend" of San Domingo.
- IV. THE MULATTOES AND THE COLOR LINE 43
- The "Free People of Color." Mulattoes and Free Negroes. Concubinage. Increase of Mulattoes. The Color Line. Its Necessity. The "Law of Reversion." Abhorrence of Miscegenation. Punishment of Renegades. Indelibilty of Color. Status of the Mulattoes. The Mulatto Character.
- V. THE SLAVES 57
- Slavery. The Slave Population. Its Sterility. Slave Imports. The Slave Trade. Preponderance of Foreign-Born Negroes. Variety of Types. The African Negro. The Creole Negro. General Character. Religion. Condition. Work. Discipline. Legal Status. Actual Status. "Marronage." The Maroon Negroes. Negro Revolts. Macandal.
- VI. THE EVE OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION IN SAN DOMINGO 75
- States-General. Discontent in San Domingo. The Idea of Colonial Representation. Beginning of the Movement. In France; in San Domingo. Propaganda in France. The Authorities in San Domingo. Colonial Opposition to Representation. Fear of the States-General; and of the Anti-Slavery Movement in France. Election of Deputies to the States-General. The Government Falls into Impotence. Colonial Propaganda in the French Elections. The "Club Massiac." The Struggle in the States-General. Fatal Results of Colonial Representation. Possibility that San Domingo Might Have Escaped the Revolution.
- VII. FIRST STAGE OF THE COLONIAL STRUGGLE IN FRANCE 91
- Rapid Progress of the Revolution. Alarm of the Colonists. Plan of a Colonial Assembly. The Mulatto Agitation in France. The Colonial Committee. Its Report; and Decree of March 8, 1790. The "Instructions" of March 28. "Article 4."
- VIII. THE FIRST TROUBLES IN SAN DOMINGO 99
- Latent Unrest at San Domingo. Effect of the "14th of July." The Poor Whites Enter Politics. Flight of Barbé-Marbois. The Provincial Assemblies,-they call a Colonial Assembly. Mulatto Unrest. Negro Unrest. White Reprisals. Results. The Mulatto Rising of March, 1790. Effect. Possibility of a Government-Planter-Mulatto Alliance,-which is not Realized.
- IX. THE ASSEMBLY OF SAINT-MARC 109
- Character of the Colonial Assembly. It Draws up a Constitution. Its Nature. Tension between Government and Assembly. Peynier's Referendum. Beginning of Hostilities. The Chevalier Mauduit. The "Pompons Blancs." The Mutiny of the Léopard. Mauduit's coup d'état. Vincent's Expedition. The Fall of Saint-Marc. The Assembly Leaves for France. The "Treaty of Léogane." Unsettled State of the Colony: the West; the South; the North. Lack of Union against the Revolution. Ogé's Rebellion. Its Meaning. Its Results. It Fails to Heal White Disunion. Overthrow of Royalism in the West. Realignment of Parties.
- X. THE DECREE OF MAY 15, 1791 125
- Relative Security of the Colonial System till 1790. Attitude of French Conservatives; and of the Colonists. Its Effect on the National Assembly. The Tide Changes trith 1791. Report on the Grand Committee. The Great Debate on the Colonies. The Bewbell Amendment. It Becomes the Decree of May 15, 1701. Its Results. Its Arrival in San Domingo, Its Reception. The new Colonial Assembly.
- XI. THE NEGRO INSURRECTION IN THE NORTH 137
- Its Outbreak. Premonitory Symptoms since 1789. White Disregard. First Negro Successes. Causes of White Inactivity: Mental Shock; Disaffection within Le Cap. Bravery of the Country Whites. Terrible Nature of the Struggle. Negro Leaders and Tactics. Primary Cause of the Insurrection. Contributory Responsibilities of the French Radicals; of the Royalists; of the Colonists.
- XII. THE MULATTO INSURRECTION IN THE WEST 153
- The Mulattoes Resolve to Strike. The Royalists of the West. The Alliance of Royalists and Mulattoes. The Confederation of La-Croix-des-Bouquets. The Concordat of September. Its real Significance. Renewal of the Troubles. Arrival of the Decree of September 24, 1791. Its Effects. The Burning of Port-au-Prince. Race War in the West; and South.
- XII. THE FIRST CIVIL COMMISSIONERS 165
- Character of the Commission; and of the Commissioners. Their Arrival at San Domingo. Their Negotiations with the Negro Rebels. Their Failure. Its Results. Breach Between Commissioners and Assembly. The Commissioners and the West. Saint-Leger in the West. He returns to France. Crisis at Le Cap. The March Riots. Mirbeck Sails for France. Roume remains; to combat a Royalist Reaction.
- XIV. THE LAW OF APRIL 4, 1792 179
- Jacobin Hostility to the Decree of the 24th September. Jacobin Power in the "Législatif." Appeals from San Domingo. The Jacobins Prevent the Sending of Aid. Effect on San Domingo. The Jacobin Assault on the Colonial System. The Report of January 10, 1792. The Approach of Jacobin Victory. The Law of April 4, 1792. Effect on San Domingo. The "Council of Peace and Union." Policy of Roume. His Journey to the West. Blanchelande in the South.
- XV. THE SECOND CIVIL COMMISSIONERS 195
- Coercive Nature of the Law of the 4th of April. The Second Civil Commission, and Commissioners, Polverel, Ailhaud, Sonthonax. Opinions of their Character. Was There a Jacobin Plot? The Commissioners' Instructions. Their Arrival at San Domingo. Their First Measures. Effect of the "Tenth of August" on San Domingo. The Royalist Conspiracy. The October Riots.
- XVI. SONTHONAX'S RULE IN THE NORTH 207
- Arrival of Rochambeau. Plans against the Color Line. The "Affaire Théron." Polverel's Voyage to the West. Sonthonax's Rule at Le Cap. Remonstrances of Polverel. The December riots. Results. Increasing Difficulties. Foreign War. First Moves toward Emancipation.
- XVII. POLVEREL'S GOVERNMENT OF THE WEST 219
- Polverel at Saint-Marc; and at Port-au-Prince. His Alliance with the Town Whites. The Desertion of Ailhaud. Polverel in the South. The Break-Up of Western Royalism on the Color Line. Hyacinthe's Maroon Rising. The Revolt of Port-au-Prince. Sonthonax in the West. Fall of Port-au-Prince. Rigaud's Defeat.
- XVIII. THE DESTRUCTION OF LE CAP 229
- Unrest at Le Cap. The Arrival of Galbaud. Alarm of the Commissioners. They Return to Le Cap. The Revolt of the Fleet. The Destruction of Le Cap. Attitude of the Commissioners.
- XIX. EMANCIPATION 237
- Exodus of the White Population; and of the White Troops. Advance of the Spaniards. State of Le Cap. Sonthonax's New Policy. His Emancipation Proclamation. Its Extension to the West and South. Its Effects. Sonthonax's Perilous Situation. His Flight to the West.
- XX. THE ENGLISH INTERVENTION 247
- White Desire for English Aid. The Grande Anse Calls in the English; and receives a British Garrison. Surrender of the Môle-Saint-Nicolas. Defection of the West. Hopeless Condition of the North. Attitude of the Commissioners. Defection of the Mulattoes. The Convention Decrees the Commissioners in a Slate of Accusation. It is Disregarded. Anti-Colonial Feeling in France. The Convention Abolishes Slavery. Effect on San Domingo. The Commissioners leave for France.
- XXI. THE ADVENT OF TOUSSAINT LOUVERTURE 263
- His Early Life. His First Acts. Toussaint in Spanish Service. He Changes Sides. Campaign Against the English (1794). The Campaign of 1795. Rivalry of the Colored Castes. Rigaud's Role in the South. Toussaint's Policy in the West. Rigaud's Policy in the North. The Mulatto Troubles at Le Cap. The Rising of the 30th Ventôse. Its Resorts.
- XXII. THE THIRD CIVIL COMMISSIONERS 275
- The Third Civil Commission; and Commissioners. Their First Acts. Sonthonax's Policy. Its Results in the North; and South. Policy of Sonthonax and Toussaint. Toussaint Expels Sonthonax. His Fears of its Effect on France. His Attitude.
- XXIII. THE MISSION OF GENERAL HÉDOUVILLE 287
- Reasons for his Mission. Toussaint's English Policy. Hédouville's Policy. His Clash with Toussaint Over the English Evacuation. The Expulsion of Hédouville.
- XXIV. THE WAR BETWEEN THE CASTES 295
- Toussaint's Difficulties. He Gains over Roume. The Conference Between Toussaint and Rigaud. The War Between The Castes. The Siege of Jacmel. The Conquest of the South. The "Bloody Assize" of Dessalines. The Ruin of the West.
- XXV. THE TRIUMPH OF TOUSSAINT LOUVERTURE 303
- Toussaint's Projects Against Santo Domingo. Opposition of Roume. It is Broken. Bonaparte's Commission. The Resistance of Santo Domingo. Its Conquest by Toussaint. Condition of French San Domingo. Toussaint's Reconstruction of San Domingo. His Favor to the Whites. Moyse's Rebellion. Toussaint's Constitution.
- XXVI. THE ADVENT OF BONAPARTE 315
- The Colonies at the 18th Brumaire. Napoleon's Constitutional Changes. Conflicting Views on the Future Colonial Policy of France. First Abortive Expedition for San Domingo. Further Tentative Measures. The English Peace Frees Napoleon's Hands. Leclerc's Instructions.
- XXVII. THE COMING OF LECLERC 327
- Leclerc's Arrival at San Domingo. Toussaint's Attitude. His Position. Leclerc's Plan. Fall of Le Cap; and Port-au-Prince. Surrender of the South; and of Santo Domingo. Dessalines' Failure at Léogane. Leclerc's Negotiations with Toussaint. Capture of Port-de-Paix. Leclerc's Campaign. Toussaint's Defeat at Couleuvres. Dessalines' Defence of the West. His Failure at Port-au-Prince. Humbert's Defeat at Port-de-Paiz. Capitulation of Maurepas. Siege of the Crête-á-Pierrot. Effect of its Capture. Submission of the Black Generals. Necessity for Leclerc's Policy of Concilation.
- XXVII. THE COMING OF THE YELLOW FEVER 345
- Yellow Fever. Toussaint's Arrest. Its Effects. Toussaint's End. The Disarmament. Napoleon's Reactionary Policy. Leclerc's Alarm. The Reaction at Guadeloupe. Its Effect on San Domingo. Loyalty of the Black Generals. Leclerc's Despair. Ravages of the Fever. The Death of Leclerc.
- XIX. THE LAST PHASE 361
- Defection of the Mulattoes. Their Attack on Le Cap. Defection of the Black Generals. Improvement under Rochambeau. Terrible Nature of the Struggle. The English War. The Loss of San Domingo. The Extermination of the Whites. The End of "San Domingo."
- BIBLIOGRAPHY 369
- INDEX 393