Siege of Budapest

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The fights are called '"Siege of Budapest'" in and all around the sieged Budapest between Soviet red army and the German and Hungarian armed forces from the 25th of December of 1944 to the 13th of February 1945, in the final phase of the second world war.

Since September was German 8. Army army group the south under the command general Wöhler fighted on Hungarian territory in retreat battles. After the fall of Debrecen the Soviets burst at the end of November between the rivers Danube and Drau among several defensive lines and took the southern part Western Hungary without bumping there into essential resistance. After reserves from east Slovakia and Hungary had been drawn off for the Ardennes offensive in the west front, four armies of the army group also had to withdraw in the north of Hungary slowly to the west. The commanders of the Soviet troops were Rodion Malinowski, and Fyodor Tolbuchin. [1] [2], [3]

Contents

Middle of October

In the middle of October the imperial administrator of Hungary - Miklós Horthy - was forced by the allies to disarm the German allies, if he wanted to stop fighting, and close a separate armistice with the Soviets. This plan failed, and the party of the national and asemitic Arrow Cross party (Hungaristic movement) became from November anew political ally of Germany. The monarchist army behaved loyally, but the aerial terror of the allies about west Hungarian and Budapest weakened the resistance will of the civil population. This time marks the beginning of the Jews denoting and ghettoing in so far liberal Hungary. However, this could not prevent that Jews sent the Soviet light signs at night, and during the day shot sometimes from houses on pedestrians. At the beginning of December Adolf Hitler enounced the town to fortress.

25 of December

On the 25th of December Budapest was completely enclosed. In the resulted cauldron beside only 800,000 remained inhabitants, approx. 20,000 German soldiers fighted, two SS cavalry divisions [[8th SS cavalry division "Florian Geyer" and "Maria Theresia" - and approx. 20,000 Hungarian soldiers of the 3. Hungarian armies under the command of SS-upper group leader and general of the police Karl Pfeffer-Wildenbruch and general Ivan Hindy. 156,000 besiegers of Budapest were the 2. Ukrainian front lead by marshal Malinowski, and troops joined shortly before, of the 3. Ukrainian front lead by Tolbuchin, the Roumanian army and Hungarian and Russian speaking Jewish red volunteer's units.

January

In January, 1945 several attempts to break out failed and the lack of ammunition and catering became more and more menacing. On the 20th of January the East Hungarian government appointed by the Soviets (government boss: Nagy Ferenc) set up an armistice and used in the eastern land part for fighting against the German empire. [4]

11th-13th of February

On the 11th of February 17,000 enclosed tried a desperate escape attempt, only about 300 (after other sources 700) reached the groups of the armed forces. The outbreak plan had been probably betrayed to the Soviets. On the 13th of February the last units capitulated. Supreme command of the armed forces founded the fights in Budapest with the strategical mission, to defend there Vienna. The fight for Budapest costed about 100,000 German armed forces soldiers the life. However, 20 divisions and nearly 1,000 airplanes of the red army were bound during 51 days, because the Soviet army leaders wanted to take Budapest before further advance. [5]

Soviet humanism

After the conquest Soviet soldiers have poured petrol in the rooms of the military hospital in the Budaer castle, and have lighted the military hospital with patients and staff. Moreover, they forced the population take off wounded soldiers the uniform and throw them in the Danube. Who refused, was immediately shot.

Identification of the fallen

Only about 5,000 soldiers and civilians could be ascertained in particular by 150,000 dead people of both sides in Budapest he city. The Danube carried away thousands of corpses and still today tens of thousands lie buried in the parks, in the city forest and in Budaer mountains . [6]

Balaton offensive

In spite of the occurred strengthening by 6th SS-armoured army - which had been moved after the failure of the Ardennes offensive in February quickly again back to Hungary, it did not succeed in fighting the town free. Also the next, so called Balaton offensive of 6.-14th of March could not prevent the Soviet offensive after northwest from the 16th of March, to reach the border of the German empire in Burgenland on the 29th of March, and from the 3rd of April Schlacht around Vienna. At the Balaton offensive fuel lack was a reason of the failure.

References

  1. university of Klagenfurt, encyclopaedia dictionary, entry Hungary: "The fights and the destruction for Budapest (25.12.1944-13.2.1945) and, finally, the conquest (4/4/1945) followed by the red army. "_ (Land)
  2. LeMO [1]:]" The battle around Budapest in 1944": [2]
  3. calendar of the city of Vienna, "Vienna 1945"/13th of February: "The fight for Budapest is to an end, the last German soldiers capitulate. In the fight for Budapest the German armed forces registered 49,000 dead people and 110,000 prisoners. The number of the Soviet victims is not known, was very high indeed, also the number of the victims under the civil population. Budapest is a heap of rubble." [3]
  4. LeMO - chronicle in 1945: [4]
  5. Manfried Rauchensteiner, "The war in Austria in 1945". In: Writings of the army-historical museum in Vienna (Military-scientific institute). Austrian federal publishing company, Vienna 1984. Page 103.
  6. quay Guleikoff, "young freedom": "Stalin's degree on the Danube: Ungvárys book to the battle around Budapest": [5]

Video

Magna Hungária: Kitörés; (The siege). Let their memory be blessed

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