Western Holocaust camps
Western Holocaust camps refer to Holocaust camps located in Germany itself and to the west of Holocaust camps in Poland/Eastern Europe. Several of these were during the war and initial postwar period alleged to have been (in part) extermination camps where deliberate mass gassings and mass killings occurred similar to those allegedly occurring in eastern camps in Poland. Many of these claims were later abandoned.
Other less seldom mentioned aspects involve the prewar camp system and the Allied atrocities that occurred at these camps at the end of the war and during the postwar period.
See the Holocaust motivations article on the prewar camps (all located in Germany) and the motivations involved in creating and expanding the camp system.
Use in argued Allied propaganda
Holocaust revisionists argue that catastrophic conditions in Germany at the end of the war (caused by factors such as the Allied bombing of German infrastructure) caused large scale epidemics and malnutrition in many camps (and elsewhere in Germany). Another contributing reason was overcrowding of the western camps due to the eastern camps having been evacuated after Germany complied with an Allied request to move prisoners from the camps near the front into Germany’s interior. American and British forces arrived at western camps located in western Germany at the end of the war in 1945. Soon photographs and movies showing scenes due to starvation and epidemics were widely shown and framed as showing German mass killings. Allied psychological warfare units are argued to have played important parts in creating this impression.
See also the article on Holocaust documentary evidence and the section "Photographs of heaps of corpses and emaciation" and "Movies" on these widely published photographs and movies from the Western Holocaust camps.
Allied propaganda had long before this claimed mass killings in camps and the Soviets had already in 1944 reached the Majdanek camp and used it for propaganda claims of German mass killings (somewhat later other camps in Poland and eastern Germany were used similarly). However, the false propaganda claims used by the Allies during the First World War against Germany were widely known and many distrusted Communist propaganda. Thus, the photographs and movies from the western camps were likely influential in convincing many that the politically correct view on the Holocaust was correct and not just wartime propaganda. Later, after German mass gassings/killings had become an established Truth, many of the early claims regarding the western camps were abandoned.
One example of early postwar propaganda is the 1946 film Die Todesmühlen (Death Mills) which claimed that every concentration camp was a "death mill". More generally, "Whenever [in the immediate post-war period] there was any talk of the ‘Final Solution of the Jewish Question’ in the sense of an alleged physical extermination of the Jews ordered by the leadership of the Third Reich, no distinction was made between the individual concentration camps. All were supposed to have been used in this monstrous murder program, since – as was explained – every concentration camps was alleged to have possessed one or more gas chambers, in which Jews were said to have been killed using Zyklon B or carbon monoxide."
An important difference between the western camps and the camps in Poland was that the latter were for a long time under Communist control and censorship. Thus, the western camps were much more easily examined and criticized by western historians. This likely contributed to the relatively early changed views on them. Also, the changing views did not cause a fundamental revision of the view on the Holocaust, since it could still be argued that genocidal mass killings occurred in camps in Poland. Regarding why this is argued to be important for various parties, see Holocaust motivations: Argued exploitation.
Stephen Pinter and Martin Broszat
The American lawyer Stephen Pinter worked for 17 months in Germany for the U.S. War Department. In 1959, he confirmed to a national Catholic weekly that, in the position in which he had found himself, he could state that there had never been any homicidal gas chambers in Germany and in Austria. Regarding Auschwitz, the Americans had not been able to carry out any investigation there, because the Soviets did not allow it. The next year the mainstream historian Martin Broszat stated in a famous letter to the editor of Die Zeit that there had not been any mass exterminations of Jews by gassing in camps located in the German Reich proper (Germany before 1938).
The change in the mainstream view has been argued to be due to Holocaust revisionist criticisms. The revisionist Thomas Kues has argued that "This shows that Holocaust historians were aware of the revisionists already from the start, and that by 1960 they had already adopted the strategy of discreetly cutting out the most untenable parts of the gas chamber mythos (without even for a moment considering the evidential foundation of the remainder) while avoiding naming the revisionists whose writings made these tactical retreats necessary."
These dramatic developments regarding the Western Holocaust camps were, however, soon followed by the widely publicized Eichmann trial (1961) and the Frankfurt Auschwitz trials (1963-1965) which focused public attention on the camps in Poland.
The Müller / Lachout Document
In the late 1980s, at the time of the fall of Communism, "The Müller Document", dated 1 October 1948, was revealed by Emil Lachout, who claimed that he had produced and certified the document in the 1940s. The document claims to describe findings by an Allied War Crimes Commission. The commission had been formed as a result of Allied mistreatment of alleged war criminals in such trials as the Malmédy trial where it had been proved that false statements were extracted by torture. The document states that no people had been killed by poison gas in many investigated Western Holocaust camps. Confessions had been obtained by torture and testimonies were false. Lachout personally saw instances of tortured Allied prisoners. The commission was not allowed to visit the Polish camps with the exception of the Stutthof camp.
Ongoing claims of homicidal gas chambers
While many of the early claims regarding the western camps have been abandoned, there are still contradictory "mainstream" views on the presence of some homicidal gas chambers and some experimental/comparatively small scale gassings in some of the western camps. Some mainstream sources reject this, other support this, with some claims alleging thousands of gas victims. In the museums of several of the former camps there are sites where homicidal gas chambers are alleged to have been located. In Dachau an alleged homicidal gas chamber is even shown in its alleged original condition (see below).
Such small-scale gassing actions were alleged in a well-known 1983 anthology. Criticisms include that "The intellectual level of the anthology is indicated, among other things, by the quoted description of the “gas chamber (singular) at Mauthausen. As proof of their existence a sentence of a U.S. court is quoted, according to which the “gas cells” (plural) were pre-heated with a hot brick and then the gas was introduced “on paper strips”!."
On the other hand, there is a consensus that earlier allegations of gas chambers/gas chambers killings in some camps, such as in Buchenwald and Bergen-Belsen, were false, despite earlier being supported by "witnesses" and "confessors". See the "Quotes" section on some of the now discredited claims.
Furthermore, there is "Dr. Charles Larson, a U.S. forensic pathologist working for the U.S. Army’s Judge Advocate General. Right after the war, Dr. Larson performed autopsies on hundreds of victims in some twenty former concentration camps. In 1980, a newspaper article appeared reporting about his wartime experience. We read there: “Larson has talked little publicly about the war experience. One reason for his silence has been that his autopsy findings conflicted with the widely held belief that most Jews in Nazi camps were exterminated by gassing, shooting or poisoning. ‘What we’ve heard is that 6 million Jews were exterminated. Part of that is a hoax,’ Larson said. […] never was a case of poisoning uncovered, he said.”"
Holocaust revisionism criticisms of the supposed division between western and eastern camps
Holocaust revisionists argue that the supposed division between non-extermination western camps and extermination eastern camps such as Auschwitz is a false postwar construct which did not exist during WWII. Auschwitz was located on German territory during WWII. Both the western camps and Auschwitz were referred to simply as "concentration camps" in all the German wartime documents and they were governed by the same German regulations. Revisionists argue that the evidence for the claims regarding Auschwitz is not qualitatively different from the evidence for the claims that have now been abandoned regarding the western camps.
In general regarding detailed arguments regarding individual camps, see the "External links" section.
Regarding Allied atrocities at these camps, see the "Allied atrocities at the Western Holocaust camps" section.
Revisionists have not denied that many died in the camps (both Jews and non-Jews) from a variety of non-gas causes while being used by National Socialist Germany. For example, revisionists have argued that German documents support these estimated numbers for some of the Holocaust camps (including some eastern camps):
- Auschwitz 135,500
- Buchenwald 33,000
- Dachau 28,000
- Majdanek 42,000
- Mauthausen 86,000
- Sachsenhausen 21,000
- Stutthof 26,000
In addition to the now even by non-revisionists discredited gassings, Buchenwald is notorious for allegations of production of human skin artifacts (such as lampshades) and shrunken human heads from prisoners. Such artifacts and heads were introduced as evidence during the IMT but later disappeared without a trace (except some photographs).
The shrunken heads are argued by revisionists to in one case even have war painting and be obviously non-European, to have long hair despite the camp prisoners having had their hair cut down almost to the scalp, and to have been from South America and to have had an inventory number of a German anthropological museum.
Various artifacts (such as lampshades) claimed to have been made from human skin have been found to be of synthetic leather, animal leather, textile, or cardboard.
The "U.S. Army intelligence report of April 24, 1945, noted that a large number of the atrocities and murders were actually committed by Communist prisoners who were interned in the camp, while many other atrocities and murders were committed during Soviet-Communist control of the camp."
Non-revisionists sometimes quotes statements made by Dwight D. Eisenhower on his visit to the Buchenwald in 1945 as evidence for German atrocities. One problem with this is that Eisenhower would have a strong self-interest in blaming the camp deaths on the Germans. This since he as Supreme Allied Commander would be responsible for Allied actions causing camp deaths. Eisenhower has stated that he after his visit immediately helped organize the pro-Allied propaganda involving Buchenwald. See also the article on Eisenhower on various related aspects such as his stated hatred of Germans, Zionist associations, and responsibility for mass deaths of civilian Germans. See also the "Quotes" section in this article.
See the article on Konrad Morgen regarding his investigation of the camp and camp commander.
See the "External links" section regarding the movies Buchenwald—A Dumb Dumb Portrayal Of Evil and Nazi Shrunken Heads.
In the Dachau museum there is a chamber alleged to be a homicidal gas chamber that is still in its alleged original condition and where gassings may be alleged to have occurred. Revisionists have argued that the various claims regarding this are contradictory, that one early report gave a description of the chamber that is very different from the current chamber (possibly related to later statements of the chamber being rebuilt after the war for better propaganda effect), that one early report rejected the existence of gassings, that the accusation was dropped during the Dachau trials, resurfaced during the IMT trial partly based on a "witness" which the defense was not allowed to cross-examine, and that for a long time period the official position of the Dachau museum and mainstream authorities was that the gas chamber was never completed and/or never used with a sign in the chamber stating "GAS CHAMBER disguised as a ‘shower room’ – never used as a gas chamber". Furthermore, it is argued that Zyklon B cannot be conducted through pipes and shower heads as claimed by witnesses and reports. Various forms of material evidence are argued to support that the room (originally) was a shower room.
There have also been allegations of various human skin artifacts being produced at Dachau despite no such objects being found.
Regarding Holocaust camp experiments on prisoners, see the article on this topic.
Regarding the Dachau trials, see the article on this topic.
See Arnold Friedman.
The Sachsenhausen camp outside Berlin has been alleged to have had a homicidal gas chamber. Communist East Germany destroyed the building containing this alleged gas chamber in 1952 and thus possibly incriminating or exonerating material evidence of its existence and function. During the Nuremberg trials it was claimed that 840,000 Soviet POWs were killed at Sachsenhausen despite the Soviets having secured the death books of this camp, in which 20,000 deceased prisoners are recorded for the years 1940-1945. Revisionists have criticized alleged witness claims supporting the Communist version, argued that some descriptions of the gas chamber resemble those of small non-homicidal delousing chamber used for delousing cloths (with the size being much too small for mass killings), and also pointed to other witnesses stating that German POWs after the war were forced to build a gas chamber for propaganda purposes (the latter claims caused criminal proceedings in West Germany on the grounds of “incitement of the people” and confiscation of writings).
Allied atrocities at the Western Holocaust camps
Revisionists argue that an Allied bombing of the Nordhausen camp caused hundreds of casualties among the inmates, yet when U.S. ground troops reached the camp and found the victims, they laid them out neatly on the camp ground for the world to see, yet falsely claimed that these were the victims of German crimes.
In 1945, 10,000 weak and sick prisoners from the Neuengamme camp as well as medical personnel and guards were transferred to ships in Lübeck. British airplanes attacked the ships with bombs and machine guns despite the ships being unarmed. The airplanes continued to fire machine-guns into the hundreds of people swimming helplessly in the water around the blazing ships even after they had rolled over. 7,000 unarmed concentration camp prisoners and in addition many Germans were killed. A misleading Memorial plaque states: “We remember the 7,000 victims of the Nazi dictatorship who were killed in the Bay of Neustadt.” Revisionists and non-revisionists dispute the causes and details of the attack.
Allied planes are stated to have bombed and strafed trains with Holocaust camps prisoners. The destruction of trains and tracks is stated to have caused transportation delays and starvation among the prisoners being transported and in the camps.
Massacres and looting of Germans at camp liberations
Massacres of German camp personal by inmates/Allied soldiers occurred at several camps when liberated. This was in part due to horrible scenes encountered when entering the camps.
At Dachau, almost all of the 560 German guards at Dachau have been stated to have been killed (the Dachau Massacre). Most of the killed German guards have been stated to have been newly arrived and thus innocent of possible wrongdoings that had previously occurred at the camp. General George S. Patton has been stated to have personally destroyed the records of the massacre and to have prevented a court-martial.
At Buchenwald, approximately 80 German guards and camp functionaries have been stated to have been killed, most brutally beaten to death. Furthermore, Buchenwald inmates have been stated to be allowed to use American jeeps to drive to the nearby town of Weimar, where they looted and randomly killed German civilians.
At Bergen-Belsen, most of the German guards have been stated to have been beaten with rifle butts, kicked, stabbed with bayonets, shot, or worked to death. Furthermore, the residents of the nearby town of Bergen have been stated to been expelled, the camp inmates allowed to loot the houses, and much of the town was set on fire.
Other sources may state different views, possibly related to the above stated cover-up. For example, Wikipedia claims regarding the Dachau massacre that "It is unclear how many SS members were killed in the incident but most estimates place the number killed at around 35-50."
Atrocities also occurred at eastern camps, such as Auschwitz, but with the victims here instead being the former inmates. See Holocaust Memorial Days.
Reuse of the camps
The revisionist Jürgen Graf has written that "Some of the camps continued operation after the war, this time with allied personnel and German prisoners who were considered a threat to allied security or who were opposed to occupational policies. Especially infamous in this regard is the Sachenshausen camp under Soviet control, but even the American operated Dachau camp served as a concentration camp after the war. One of the prisoners held captive by the Americans in Dachau published a diary, which is interesting reading especially when compared with the diary of a prisoner who was in the same camp under German rule, i.e., during the war. In an analysis, Ingrid Weckert has juxtaposed both diaries and by so doing, was able to show that conditions in the Dachau camp were considerably better under German rule than they were under U.S. military rule – except for the very last months of the war, when the German infrastructure had broken down and the inmates, like everybody in Germany, suffered terribly due to lack of all supplies."
The camps at Buchenwald, Sachsenhausen, Mühlberg, Fürstenwalde, Liebe-Roze, Bautzen and others became part of the Soviet Gulag system. The revisionist John Wear writes that "The Soviet Buchenwald had a higher estimated death rate than the German Buchenwald. [...] Russian estimates show a total of 122,671 Germans passed through Soviet-run camps in the Soviet Zone after the end of the war. Of this total, 42,889 Germans died, or approximately 35%. The official Soviet statistics probably underestimate the true number of dead in the Soviet-run camps. American military intelligence units and Social Democratic Party groups in the late 1940s and 1950s estimate that a much higher total of 240,000 German prisoners passed through Soviet-run camps in the Soviet zone. Of these, an estimated 95,643 died, or almost 40%. [...] The hundreds of thousands of visitors who visit the Buchenwald campsite each year only see museums and memorials dedicated to the “victims of fascism.” There is nothing at Buchenwald to remind visitors of the thousands of Germans who perished miserably in Buchenwald after the war when the camp was run by the Soviet Communists." Large scale atrocities against Germans are also stated to have occurred at Czech-run and Polish-run camps which sometimes were reused German camps.
See also the article on Claimed mass killings of Germans by the WWII Allies.
"Murder conducted like some mass production industry in the gas chambers and the ovens of Auschwitz, Dachau, Treblinka, Buchenwald, Mauthausen, Maidanek, and Oranienburg [Sachsenhausen]."
"Neither in Dachau nor in Bergen-Belsen nor in Buchenwald were Jews or other prisoners gassed. The gas chamber in Dachau was never entirely ‘completed’ and put into operation. Hundreds of thousands of prisoners who perished in Dachau or other concentration camps in the territory of the Reich proper, were victims above all of the catastrophic hygienic and supply conditions […]. The mass extermination of the Jews by gassing began in 1941/1942 and took place exclusively at several […] locations, above all in the occupied Polish territory (but nowhere in the Reich proper): in Auschwitz-Birkenau, in Sobibór on the Bug, in Treblinka, Chelmno, and Belzec. There, but not in Bergen-Belsen, Dachau or Buchenwald, those mass extermination facilities disguised as shower baths or disinfection rooms were set up […]."—Dr. Martin Broszat, 1960, the German federal Institute for Contemporary History.
"It is true that there were no extermination camps on German soil and thus no mass gassings such as those that took place at Auschwitz, Treblinka and other camps. A gas chamber was in the process of being built at Dachau, but it was never completed"
"SS Gruppenführer Glücks gave the order to designate the weak prisoners as sick and to kill them by gas in a large installation. There, around 1-1 1/2 million persons were killed. The area in question is named Hartheim and is located 10 kilometers in the direction of Passau"—Mauthausen commander Franz Ziereis, alleged "confession" to an inmate after being shot three times in the stomach, cited as evidence at the IMT.
“I was in Dachau for 17 months after the war, as a U.S. War Department Attorney, and can state that there was no gas chamber at Dachau.”—Stephen F. Pinter in a newspaper interview.
“The camp had to have a gas chamber, so, since one did not exist, it was decided to pretend that the shower bath had been one. Capt Strauss (U.S. Army) and his prisoners got to work on it. Previously it had flag stones to the height of about four feet. Similar flag stones in the drying room next door were taken out and put above those in the shower bath, and a new lower ceiling was created at the top of this second row of flag stones with iron funnels in it (the inlets for the gas).”—Article titled “The False Gas Chamber”, The Common Sense, 1962.
Bergen-Belsen and Buchenwald (today consensus that no gassings occurred)
"Everything had been provided for down to the smallest detail. In 1944, at Buchenwald, they had even lengthened a railway line so that the deportees might be led directly to the gas chamber. Certain [of the gas chambers] had a floor that tipped and immediately directed the bodies into the room with the crematory oven."—French government on Buchenwald in an official document.
“I visited every nook and cranny of the camp because I felt it my duty to be in a position from then on to testify at first hand about these things in case there ever grew up at home the belief or assumption that "the stories of Nazi brutality were just propaganda." Some members of the visiting party were unable to go through with the ordeal. I not only did so but as soon as I returned to Patton's headquarters that evening I sent communications to both Washington and London, urging the two governments to send instantly to Germany a random group of newspaper editors and representative groups from the national legislatures. I felt that the evidence should be immediately placed before the American and the British publics in a fashion that would leave no room for cynical doubt."
“An obsession with machinery literally abounded when it came to extermination. Since it had to occur quite rapidly, a special form of industrialization was required. The gas chambers answered that need in a very different way. Some, rather refined in conception, were supported by pillars of porous material, with which the gas formed and then seeped through the walls. Others were simpler in structure. But all were sumptuous in appearance. It was easy to see that the architects had conceived them with pleasure, devoting great attention to them, gracing them with all the resources of their aesthetic ense. These were the only parts of the camp that had truly been constructed with love.”—"Witness" Charles Hauter on Buchenwald.
“On the ceiling at irregular intervals were seventeen air-tight, sealed shower heads. They looked like ordinary shower heads. The deportees assigned to the crematorium had warned me of the manner in which the victims, to mock them, were all given a towel and a small bar of soap before entering the shower. The unfortunates were thus brought to believe that they were entering a shower. [...] the gas descended to the floor, so that none of the victims could escape what the Germans called the ‘slow and sweet death’[...] Everything was organized on a strictly scientific basis. The Devil himself could not have planned it better.”—"Witness" Georges Hénocque on Buchenwald.
“As an 11 year-old boy held captive at the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp during World War II, Moshe Peerwas sent to the gas chamber at least six times. Each time he survived, watching with horrors as many of the women and children gassed with him collapsed and died. To this day, Peer doesn’t know how he was able to survive.”
"French priest Jean-Paul Renard promoted the deliberate lie that he saw “homicidal gassings at Buchenwald.” When former Buchenwald inmate Rassinier pointed out to him that there were no homicidal gas chambers or murderous gassings in the camp, Renard replied: “Right, but that’s only a figure of speech…and since those things [Hitler gas chambers] existed somewhere, its not important.”"—From "In Defense of Holocaust Revisionism".
"The camp was not really inefficient before you [British and American forces] crossed the Rhine. There was running water, regular meals of a kind […]. But then they suddenly began to send me trainloads of new prisoners from all over Germany. It was impossible to cope with them. […] Then as a last straw the Allies bombed the electric plant that pumped our water. Loads of food were unable to reach the camp because of the Allied fighters. Then things really got out of hand. […] I did not even have sufficient staff to bury the dead, let alone segregate the sick. […] I tried to get medicines and food for the prisoners and I failed. I was swamped."
- Lectures on the Holocaust - section 2.4 Gas Chambers in the German Reich Proper, section 2.5 No Gas Chamber in Sachsenhausen, section 2.6 Clarity about Dachau, and section 2.7 Jewish Soap, Lampshades, and Shrunken Heads
- Inside the Gas Chambers—The Extermination of Mainstream Holocaust Historiography - Summarizes the arguments for and against every single gas chamber claim made for any of the German war time camps including those for western camps.
- The Leuchter Reports—Critical Edition - The second report examines several western camps.
Article archives on individual camps
- Codoh: Bergen-Belsen
- Codoh: Buchenwald
- Codoh: Dachau
- Codoh: Hartheim
- Codoh: Mauthausen
- Codoh: Neuengamme
- Codoh: Nordhausen-Dora
- Codoh: Sachsenhausen
- Codoh: Struthof-Natzweiler
Article archives on other topics
- Probing the Holocaust, The Horror Explained
- Buchenwald—A Dumb Dumb Portrayal Of Evil
- Nazi Shrunken Heads—A 24-minute free video about lies which justify war
- Questioning “The Holocaust” - including a discussion of the Nordhausen camp
- ↑ 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 Germar Rudolf. Lectures on the Holocaust—Controversial Issues Cross Examined 2nd, revised and corrected edition. Holocaust Handbooks. http://holocausthandbooks.com/index.php?page_id=15
- ↑ Alfred de Grazia, Commanding Officer of the Psychological Warfare Propaganda Team attached to headquarters of the US 7th Army https://furtherglory.wordpress.com/2013/04/08/alfred-de-grazia-commanding-officer-of-the-psychological-warfare-propaganda-team-attached-to-headquarters-of-the-us-7th-army/
- ↑ Dachau - The U.S. Army and Government lies about "extermination" and "homicidal gas chambers" - Microcosm of the Holocaust™ Fraud. http://exposing-the-holocaust-hoax-archive.blogspot.com/2009/10/dachau-us-army-and-government-lies.html
- ↑ Buchenwald—A Dumb Dumb Portrayal Of Evil. http://holocausthandbooks.com/index.php?main_page=2&page_id=1003
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Probing the Holocaust, The Horror Explained https://codoh.com/library/document/4056/?lang=en
- ↑ Anti-Gentiles Deny the 5 Million! https://codoh.com/library/document/4239/?lang=en
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 National Socialist Concentration Camps, Legend and Reality http://codoh.com/library/document/1171/
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 The Müller Document http://codoh.com/library/document/2185/
- ↑ A Chronicle of Holocaust Revisionism, Part 3 (1956-1960) https://codoh.com/library/document/3120/
- ↑ Chapter "Emil Lachout" in 'Did Six Million Really Die?' Report of the Evidence in the Canadian 'False News' Trial of Ernst Zündel -- 1988. Edited by Barbara Kulaszka. Available online at Institute for Historical Review: http://www.ihr.org/books/kulaszka/29lachout.html
- ↑ Stephen F. Pinter: An Early Revisionist https://codoh.com/library/document/3175/?lang=en
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 Holocaust Handbooks, Volume 1: Germar Rudolf (ed.): Dissecting the Holocaust—The Growing Critique of ‘Truth’ and ‘Memory’ 2nd, revised edition. http://holocausthandbooks.com/index.php?page_id=1
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 In Defense of Holocaust Revisionism: A Response to Shermer and Grobman's Denying History http://www.vho.org/tr/2002/1/tr09denyhist.html
- ↑ When It's Twilight by the Gas Chamber, Lampshades of Human Skin Dept. http://codoh.com/library/document/226/
- ↑ How a TV Documentary Turned a British War Crime into a German War Crime http://codoh.com/library/document/1734/
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 https://wearswar.wordpress.com/2017/11/10/did-general-patton-cover-up-allied-crimes-committed-on-german-concentration-camp-guards/
- ↑ History’s Most Terrifying Peace: Allied-Run Concentration Camps https://wearswar.wordpress.com/2017/09/16/histories-most-terrifying-peace-allied-run-concentration-camps/