Race and crime

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The relationship between race and crime is one of the most politically sensitive race differences. Statistics have shown that members of different races have different propensities to commit crimes. One consequence is that the recent mass migrations are causing changes in crime patterns in many nations.

Contents

Statistics

Worldwide

Handbook of Crime Correlates

The Handbook of Crime Correlates (2009) is a literature review of over 5200 scientific studies examining how many different factors correlate with and otherwise are related to crime. Many of the studies are from the United States, but the review also includes studies from other countries. The review states that studies on official data consistently finds higher crimes rates for Blacks than for Whites, especially regarding violent crimes.[1]

Victim surveys also show higher Black crime rates.[1]

Studies on self-reported crimes are more inconsistent, with these studies being about equally divided between those finding a higher overall offending and those finding no relationship. One possible explanation for the inconsistency between self-reported crimes and other forms of data is biases in the criminal justice systems, but evidence for such an effect is mixed. Another is that self-reported crimes primarily involves relatively trivial and victimless crimes, such as marijuana use. A third explanation is that some research indicates that Whites tend to provide more complete self-reported information regarding crimes.[1]

Also Hispanics have a higher official crime rates than Whites. Studies on self-reported crimes are more inconsistent. Both official and self-reported offending are higher for Amerindians than for Whites. East Asians have lower official and self-reported crime rates than Whites. The official offending rates for South Asian compared to Whites are mixed, but self-reported offending is higher. Both official and self-reported crime rates are higher for Pacific and Indian Oceanic Islanders than for Whites.[1]

INTERPOL crime statistics

J. Philippe Rushton collated crime statistics from the 1986, 1990, and 1993-96 INTERPOL Yearbooks for different countries. He then grouped the countries based on the dominant race of the inhabitants and calculated the average crime rates for rape, murder, and, serious assault, for each group of countries. For all the years examined, he found similarly large differences between the racial groups. Similar or greater differences were found when comparing only subsets consisting of more racially homogeneous countries. The same pattern also appeared when comparing total violent crime in six mainly White/Amerindian Caribbean countries to eight mainly Black Caribbean countries (72 vs. 449 violent crimes per 100,000 people per year).[2] These results are especially interesting, since various politically correct explanations, such as majority oppression or discrimination of minorities, are not applicable.

United States

The Color of Crime. Available online: [2]

2005 "The Color of Crime" report

The report The Color of Crime (2005, second expanded edition) by the New Century Foundation states that, while the official crime statistics show large racial differences in the United States, there are several problems which tend to cause underestimation of the racial differences. One example being "Whites" sometimes including Hispanics. Another is not adjusting for that the different racial groups differ in population size. The report reviews the more accurate statistics that is available and describes many large differences in crime rates between races. The report also examines the research on possible bias against racial minorities in the justice system and the police and concludes that bias not a significant explanation for the different racial crime rates.[3]

Its major findings were stated as:[3]

  • Blacks are seven times more likely than people of other races to commit murder, and eight times more likely to commit robbery.
  • When Blacks commit crimes of violence, they are nearly three times more likely than non-Blacks to use a gun, and more than twice as likely to use a knife.
  • Hispanics commit violent crimes at roughly three times the white rate, and Asians commit violent crimes at about one quarter the White rate.
  • The single best indicator of violent crime levels in an area is the percentage of the population that is Black and Hispanic.
  • Of the nearly 770,000 violent interracial crimes committed every year involving Blacks and Whites, Blacks commit 85 percent and Whites commit 15 percent.
  • Blacks commit more violent crime against whites than against blacks. Forty-five percent of their victims are white, 43 percent are Black, and 10 percent are Hispanic. When Whites commit violent crime, only three percent of their victims are Black.
  • Blacks are an estimated 39 times more likely to commit a violent crime against a White than vice versa, and 136 times more likely to commit robbery.
  • Blacks are 2.25 times more likely to commit officially-designated hate crimes against whites than vice versa.
  • Only 10 percent of youth gang members are white.
  • Hispanics are 19 times more likely than whites to be members of youth gangs. Blacks are 15 times more likely, and Asians are nine times more likely.
  • Between 1980 and 2003, the United States incarceration rate more than tripled, from 139 to 482 per 100,000, and the number of prisoners increased from 320,000 to 1.39 million.
  • Blacks are seven times more likely to be in prison than Whites. Hispanics are three times more likely.

2016 "The Color of Crime" report

A revised "The Color of Crime" report was released in 2016. Major stated findings included:[4]

  • There are dramatic race differences in crime rates. Asians have the lowest rates, followed by whites, and then Hispanics. Blacks have notably high crime rates. This pattern holds true for virtually all crime categories and for virtually all age groups.
  • In 2013, a black was six times more likely than a non­black to commit murder, and 12 times more likely to murder someone of another race than to be murdered by someone of another race.
  • In 2013, of the approximately 660,000 crimes of interracial violence that involved blacks and whites, blacks were the perpetrators 85 percent of the time. This meant a black person was 27 times more likely to attack a white person than vice versa. A Hispanic was eight times more likely to attack a white person than vice versa.
  • If New York City were all white, the murder rate would drop by 91 percent, the robbery rate by 81 percent, and the shootings rate by 97 percent. In an all­-white Chicago, murder would decline 90 percent, rape by 81 percent, and robbery by 90 percent.

2012-13 statistics

2012-13 data released in 2015 by the Department of Justice for the first time separated Hispanics as an offender category. American Renaissance stated the data showed that "during the 2012/2013 period, blacks committed an average of 486,945 violent crimes against whites, whereas whites committed only 99,403 such crimes against blacks. This means blacks were the attackers in 84.5 percent of the violent crimes involving blacks and whites. [...] violent interracial crime involving blacks and Hispanics occurs in almost exactly the same proportions. [...] A black is 27 times more likely to attack a white and 8 times more likely to attack a Hispanic than the other way around. A Hispanic is eight times more likely to attack a white than vice versa. [...] when whites commit violence they choose fellow whites as victims 82.4 percent of the time, and almost never attack blacks. [...] only 40.1 percent of the victims of black violence are black, while people of other races account for nearly 60 percent of the victims of black violence. The figures for overall violence–as opposed to violence that crosses racial lines–show a surprisingly sharp drop in the relative likelihood of blacks to commit violent crime. [...] There may have been an actual fall in relative black violence rates. It is also likely that many blacks who would otherwise be committing are behind bars. One in every 15 black men is in jail, as opposed to one in 36 Hispanics and one in 106 whites."[5]

Rapes

Based on "Criminal Victimization in the United States, 2008" there were 19,293 Black-on-White rapes/sexual assaults and no "White"-on-Black rapes/sexual assaults (numbers include threatened rapes/sexual assaults).[6]

The Color of Crime also stated that between 2001 and 2003 there were an average of 15,400 Black-on-White rapes. The number of White-on-Black rapes were unclear. Counting some Hispanics as Whites, there were 900 "White"-on-Black rapes. Blacks were 7.2 time more likely to commit interracial rape, even after controlling for differences in population size and for the higher general rate of rape for Blacks. This may suggest a deliberate targeting of Whites.[3]

There were 10,000 gang-rapes by Blacks against Whites between, but not a single "White"-on-Black gang rape.[3]

A 2001 report stated that "Past studies have documented the prevalence of black on white sexual aggression in prison. These findings are further confirmed by Human Rights Watch's own research. Overall, our correspondence and interviews with white, black, and Hispanic inmates convince us that white inmates are disproportionately targeted for abuse. Although many whites reported being raped by white inmates, black on white abuse appears to be more common. To a much lesser extent, non-Hispanic whites also reported being victimized by Hispanic inmates."[7]

Racial hatred of Whites has been a stated motive for some Black rapists.[8]

White-collar offenses

A common myth is that Whites are more likely to commit white-collar offenses. Actually, Blacks are 3-5 times more likely than Whites to be in prison for fraud, bribery/conflict of interest, racketeering, and embezzlement.[3]

Homicide

As noted above, The Color of Crime stated a seven times higher homicide rate for Blacks. The CDC (Center for Disease Control) has stated an 8.5 times higher Black homicide rate than White homicide rate for the year 2007. For males it was 13 times higher, for 20 to 24-year-old males it was 17 times higher, and for 15 to 19-year-old males it was over 20 times higher.[9]

According to FBI statistics, in 2013 the number of Black-on-White homicides (409) was more than double the number of "White"-on-Black homicides (189), despite Blacks only being 13% of the population.[9]

The Council of Conservative Citizens in 2014 documented about 400 cases of Black-on-White murders. Unlike the above mentioned FBI statistics for 2013, very few cases of White-on-Black murders could be found (4 cases). One explanation was that many "White"-on-Black murders were actually done by Hispanics, who are classified as "Whites" in the FBI statistics. Blacks from Spanish speaking countries were also argued to be incorrectly classified as "White" offenders in the official crime data. The official "White" offenders also included North Africans, Arabs, Turks, Persians, and people from central Asian countries. Furthermore, it was also argued that the number of Black-on-White murders was likely significantly higher, if taking into account murders with unknown perpetrators, which may often disproportionately involve random stranger killings by Blacks. Also, anti-White bias was argued to cause many Blacks perpetrators to be charged with lesser crimes than similar White perpetrators.[10][11]

Serial and other multiple murderers

Media depictions of serial killers have been accused of so widespread racial bias that it is easy to believe that all serial killers are White. The extensive media coverage (including Hollywood movies) of certain White serial killers have made these individuals almost household names, while similar non-White serial killers are practically unknown to the general public. When a non-White serial killer has gained some media attention, then this may be due to the racial identity of the murderer initially being unknown. Also criminological literature has been accused of bias, by very rarely including case descriptions of non-White serial killers.[12]

Actual crime statistics instead show that Whites in comparison to their population size are under-represented as serial murderers. Blacks are over-represented as serial killers and this over-representation may be increasing. One study stated that Blacks constituted 44% of the known serial killers during the 1995-2004 period and another that Blacks constituted 38.2% of all multiple murderers (serial, mass, and spree combined) during 1976-1998 period. Several of the Black serial murderers selectively murdered Whites. During a period during the 1970s, a group of organized Black serial killers selectively murdered Whites and may have murdered more victims than all other serial killers combined during this period ("The Zebra Killings"). The group was convicted for crimes against 23 persons, but the police and researchers have indicated that the actual number of victims may be far higher (80-270 victims).[12]

A 2012 book stated that during the 2000-2010 decade, 62% of serial killers were Black.[13]

Crime and percentage of Black population in an area

A large number of studies have examined the relationship between percentage of Black population in an area and crime. Almost all have found a higher percentage of Blacks in the area to be associated with more violent crime and most have found such a relationship with other types of crimes.[1]

"Hate crime"

Main article: Hate crime

Only 0.3% of reported interracial crimes are classified as official "hate crimes". This classification has been argued to be arbitrary and biased against Whites. Despite this, The Color of Crime found that any given black person was 2.25 times more likely to commit an official hate crime against Whites and Hispanics than the reverse. The media has been argued to give undue emphasis to official hate crimes as compared to the much more common interracial crimes in general as well as having a bias towards reporting the more uncommon White-on-Black crimes.[14][3]

Race riots and mob violence

The book White Girl Bleed a Lot: The Return of Racial Violence to America and How the Media Ignore It describes an increasing trend of Black mob violence (including the knockout game and flash mobs), citing hundreds of examples in more than 100 cities, as well as cover-up by police, politicians, and national news media.[9]

Each year in cities across the country, officials are argued to prepare for possible widespread violence associated with Black events.[9]

Minority-on-minority crime

The LA County Sheriff stated in 1998 that "We have a serious interracial violence problem in this county involving blacks and Latinos. The truth is that, in many cases, race is at the heart of the problem. Latino gang members shoot blacks not because they’re members of a rival gang but because of their skin color. Likewise, black gang members shoot Latinos because they are brown….Gang affiliation does not matter. Only the color of the victim’s skin matters….I would even take this a step further and suggest that some of L.A.‘s so-called gangs are really no more than loose-knit bands of blacks or Latinos roaming the streets looking for people of the other color to shoot."[15]

Many large scale examples of minority-on-minority crime have been reported and which in some cases involve hundreds of people battling one another. It has been argued that "Mexicans tend to prey on blacks in West Coast cities where they’ve already become an undisputed majority, while it’s blacks preying on Mexican intruders in East Coast cities where blacks still hold a numerical advantage." Some conflicts have been compared with ethnic cleansing of the other group from certain areas. This is an outcome argued to sometimes be supported by racially based organized crime groups which control local areas.[15]

Minority-on-minority crime has been argued to be ignored by the mass media, since the politically correct narrative is Whites attacking non-Whites.[15]

The book Race and Crime: A Biosocial Analysis stated that a detailed study in Los Angeles, published in 2000, found that almost half of all "hate crimes" occurred between Blacks and Hispanics (who are often classified as "Whites" in the official statistics).[16]

Organized crime

Organized crime is according the FBI often organized along ethnic lines. It includes many more ethnicities/races and structures than the traditional media stereotype of the Italian-American Mafia. Different aspects of the problem have been stated to be increasing.[17][18]

The very powerful Jewish Mafia has often been ignored in media depictions.[19][20][21] The more recent "Russian Mafia", which has become increasingly powerful in the United States and elsewhere, has been stated to actually be a Jewish Mafia (in particular regarding the leadership).[22][23][24] A large role of Jews in worldwide organized crime generally has also been argued.[25]

Prisons

As of 2001, the risks of going to only State or Federal prison in percentages for various demographic groups. The lifetime risk for Black males was around 1/3.[26]

For men in their early thirties, Blacks are about 7 times more likely to have a prison record than Whites. They are more likely to have been in prison (22.4 percent) than in the military (17.4 percent) or in college. 12.5 percent have a bachelor’s degree. The results are related to educational achievement. 30 percent of those without college education and nearly 60 percent of high school dropouts had prison records.[27]

The 40% Blacks share of the U.S. prison population is sometimes in itself seen as evidence of racism. However, this proportion has been argued to reflect the proportion of crimes committed by Blacks in the U.S. and if anything being too low.[9]

In prisons, racially based prison gangs and racial conflicts are common. Racial segregation of certain areas has been one partial solution which has been supported by the prisoners themselves.[18][28]

Hispanic and immigrant crime

Immigration supporters often argue that the Hispanic and immigrant crime rates in the United States are not high. This is a surprising claim, considering the earlier mentioned statistics finding high Hispanic crime rates, the high crime rates in Latin America, and the high crime rates for non-Western (except East Asian) immigrants to Europe as demonstrated by, for example, official Swedish immigrant crime statistics.[29] Even European immigration supporters sometimes cite the claimed not high United States immigrant crime rates.

Critics have argued that the pro-immigration claims are based on selective, unreliable, and dubious statistics and misleading presentations. For example, criminal immigrants often have strong incentives to not voluntarily reveal or to lie about their country of origin and citizenship status, law enforcement agencies may be forbidden from asking such questions, and official United States crime statistics often misleadingly classify Hispanic offenders as White offenders. More reliable statistics for Hispanics and recent immigrants are argued to show rising crime rates. The overwhelming evidence, based on data such as national victimization surveys and incarceration statistics, is argued to find that Hispanics are several times more violence prone than non-Hispanic whites. Also, these crime rates may be too low, since it may be much easier for immigrants to escape justice by returning to their home countries.[30][31]

Immigration supporters have sometimes argued that cities with large Hispanic population shares do not have high crime rates, but this is argued by critics to be because these cities have low Black population shares.[30]

Regarding non-citizen Hispanics, in 2009 in federal courts they accounted for 25% of those sentenced for drug crimes. More than 90% of the non-citizen inmates in federal prisons are Hispanic. Many are career criminals arrested numerous times. About 12% were doing time for violent offenses such as murder, robbery, assault, and sex-related crimes.[30]

A 2015 Center for Immigration Studies article stated that "In a detailed report, a colleague and I have explained why it is very difficult to measure immigrant crime. [...] Data collected by the Census Bureau in 2013 shows that 23 per 1,000 male Mexican immigrants ages 18 to 40 are institutionalized (mainly in jails or prisons; few people at that age are in nursing homes or similar institutions). This compares to 31 per 1,000 for native-born men in this age group. However, looking at only non-black native men (18-40) shows an incarceration rate of 20 per 1,000. This is somewhat lower than the rate of Mexican-born men and a good deal lower than the 38 per 1,000 for U.S.-born men of Mexican ancestry. It is also worth noting that Mexican men are included in the figure for non-black natives; if they are excluded then the rate for natives would be 18 per 1,000. The rate for native-born whites alone is 16 per 1,000."[32]

Immigration may also have indirect effects on crime. A 2010 study argued that the large Hispanic immigration has displaced Blacks from low-skilled jobs, which has caused effects such as increased Black unemployment and increased Black violent crime.[33]

There are also several reasons for why United States immigrant and Hispanic crime rates may be different from European immigrant and Hispanic crime rates:

  • The United States each year repatriates very large numbers of criminal immigrants (198,000 in 2013), which causes those remaining to be a less criminally prone population.[34]
  • The United States generally imprisons criminals for longer time periods, which protects the general population from crime for longer time periods.
  • The United States have fewer immigrants from Africa and the Middle East, who are the immigrant groups with the highest crime rates in European countries such as Sweden.[29]
  • The United States allows fewer "refugee" immigrants, who may in some cases simply be criminals of various kinds, fleeing not persecution, but justice.
  • The United States attracts more highly educated legal immigrants.
  • The United States have harsher welfare and justice systems (but more lenient gun control laws allowing non-criminals to arm themselves), which may discourage immigrants expecting to not contribute, but instead to take advantage of their new country.

However, these advantages may disappear or be lessened by various immigration "reforms" proposed by United States immigration supporters, such as more indiscriminate immigration, "immigration amnesty", and "sanctuary policies" preventing deportation of criminal immigrants.

Illegal voting

A 2017 study estimated that as many as 7.9 million United States noncitizens were illegally registered in 2008 (when Obama was elected) and that 594,000 to 5.7 million of those illegally voted in the election.[35]

Canada

Aboriginal peoples in Canada, including the mixed origin Métis, make up 3,8% of Canada's population, but account for 18% of the federal prison population as of 2002.[36][37]

Britain

In 2009-10, Blacks were 2.7% of the population aged 10 or above in England and Wales. They were 13.7% of the prison population, received 6% of sentences for burglary, 9% of sentences for violence against persons, 16% of sentences for drug offences, 19% of sentences for robbery, and 22% of sentences for fraud and forgery. Crimes committed by Blacks were more severe, as shown by longer sentence lengths.[38]

Almost twice as many black people were in 2003 in prison as at university, according to a report by the Commission for Racial Equality.[39]

In London, 12% of the population was Black in 2010. In June 2010 The Sunday Telegraph, through a Freedom of Information Act request, obtained statistics regarding those the police took action against for a range of crimes in London in 2009-10. For street crimes, including muggings, assault with intent to rob, and snatching property, 54% of the offenders were Black. For robbery 59%. For gun crimes 67%. For sexual offences 32%. Black women were responsible for a disproportionate amount of the violent crimes committed by women.[40]

The "British Crime Survey" in 2004 found that more Whites than non-Whites reported being the victim of a racially motivated crime. Five times as many Whites as non-Whites reported being wounded in such attacks.[41]

France

A 2013 book described an explosion of crime in France and linked this to the mass immigration of non-Whites. France has no official statistics on ethnicity and crime, but a study found that 60-70% of prisoners are Muslims and local statistics confirmed the over-representation of non-Whites in prison. Also in other European countries were Blacks and Arabs over-represented in the criminal population. The police received little support from the politically correct media or authorities and were instead routinely accused of "racism". The police union stated that police officers were afraid to use force for fear of racial consequences. Criminals therefore no longer feared the police and if caught they received limited or no jail time. This was likely an explanation for why race riots in France were more frequent and violent than in any other European country. Police rarely entered certain immigrant neighborhoods ("no-go areas") for fear that their mere presence could be a "provocation". The media disproportionately focused on crimes against minorities, such as Jews, Muslims, and homosexuals, despite these groups having much lower risks per person of being victimized than French natives.[42]

Australia

Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders accounted for 27% of the total Australian prisoner population in 2014, but were only approximately 2% of the Australian population aged 18 years and over.[43]

New Zealand

In 2004, Maori made up just 15% of the total population, but 49.5% of prisoners.[44]

Brazil

Brazil has sometimes been seen as a good example regarding race relations, which may be due to the belief that widespread race mixing is the solution to race problems. Thus, the introduction to the controversial declaration The Race Question stated, without citing any sources, that the race situation in Brazil was in "harmony" and "favorable and, in many ways, exemplary".[45].

The situation in Brazil has instead been described as a state of low intensity warfare between the police and Mulatto/Black criminals. Also the police themselves have been stated to regard themselves as engaged in warfare with the criminals. In 1991, the police killed 1171 people, largely Mulattoes and Blacks, only in Sao Paulo and only according to official statistics. The police has also been stated to organize vigilante patrols ("death squads") that commit extrajudicial killings of suspected criminals. They have been stated to feel that they have unofficial approval for killing poor Black criminals. Despite this, has the crime rate been very high and caused widespread White flight and flight by East Asians. According to official statistics, which may have various problems such as the large scale killings by the police, Blacks were over-represented 5.6 times and Mulattoes 1.5 times in the prison population in Sao Paulo in 2000.[46]

In 2012, the PCC (Primeiro Comando da Capital), the larger criminal organization in São Paulo, killed over a hundred police officers and most of who were not on duty. The police have been accused of answering with hundreds of extrajudicial killings during the first months of 2013.[47]

The state of Santa Catarina, the most European, with 86% being White, is also the state with the lowest homicide rate.[48].

Cuba

Communist Cuba has attempted to eliminate racial differences and discrimination through various forced measures. Despite this, large racial differences have been reported to continue to exist, including a large over-representation of Blacks in the prison population.[46]

Eastern Africa

In parts of Eastern Africa, there is a belief, even by rich urban dwellers, that body parts of albinos have magical powers. Witch doctors buy albino body parts. Fishermen have used human hair from albinos woven into fishing nets for good luck. Bones are ground down and buried, since it is believed they will transform into diamonds. Treatments made from the genitals are believed to boost sexual potency. Body parts have been used to treat the sick. Albinos have therefore been killed or have had their members severed. In some cases, they have been butchered on the streets. During the 2007-10 period in Tanzania, there were 66 confirmed attacks and 57 murders, but many attacks are believed to have gone unreported. Sex with albinos is believed to cure AIDS, which have caused many rapes. The attacks were in 2010 stated to be spreading to other parts of Africa, with attacks reported in Ghana and Swaziland. Albino skins from Tanzania have been sold in Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and South Africa.[49][50]

In Ethiopia, an estimated 300 children are killed each years by the village elders of two tribes, because they are believed to be cursed children and can bring the rest of the tribe bad luck.[51]

South Africa

In 2002, the child care group Childline stated that one in four girls faces the prospect of being raped before the age of 16. There is a widespread myth that sex with a child or baby will rid a man of HIV or AIDS.[52][53]

More than 25 per cent of South African men, questioned in a survey published by the Medical Research Council (MRC) in June 2009, admitted to rape; of those, nearly half said they had raped more than one person. One in twenty had raped during the last year. Three out of four of those who had admitted rape indicated that they had attacked for the first time during their teens. Any woman raped by a man over the age of 25 had a one in four chance of her attacker being HIV-positive. One out of ten males had been raped by other men. Practices such as gang rape were common, since they were considered a form of male bonding.[54][55]

Sub-Saharan Africa in general

Surveys in 2009 in 18 sub-Saharan African countries found that a median of 77% saw rape as a major problem in their country.[56]

Surveys in several countries have stated that large percentages of women, girls, and partners report being raped.[57][58][59][60]

Violence against women

There are large differences between countries regarding the prevalence of intimate partner violence against women. For example, a 2006 study found very high prevalence in several surveyed non-Western countries (except Japan). In Ethiopia, over half of the women reported physical/sexual violence during the past year.[61]

See also the earlier sections on African countries regarding rapes.

There are various also forms of violence against women in various non-White populations (including by immigrants from such populations), such as honor violence, honor killings, rapes ordered by village councils as method of settling honor disputes between groups, female genital mutilation (the majority of women in some countries), dowry killings, bride burning, acid throwing, Taharrush gamea, and selective female abortions/infanticides (causing large scale deficits of women in some countries). While the specific forms are affected by culture, it is possible that genetic factors may influence factors such as general aggression and the acceptance of individuality vs. demands for group conformism.

Although women previously had fewer rights in Western societies, they were arguably never subjected to the degree of violence found in many non-Western societies.

Ethnic/racial homogeneity

Many studies have examined if ethnic/racially heterogeneous areas, most often neighborhoods in large cities, have higher crime rates than homogeneous areas. The evidence is largely consistent for that the more ethnically/racially heterogeneous an area is, the higher its crime rates tend to be.[1]

High ethnic/racially heterogeneity has been argued to be a major cause of ethnic conflicts and civil wars, as discussed in the article on Ethnic heterogeneity.

No-go areas

See No-go area.

Immigration and crime

Main article: Immigration and crime

Immigration and crime is a topic that has gained increased attention as mass immigration is rapidly changing the populations of many countries. It is related to race and crime but not identical. For example, many countries do not provide racial crime statistics, but do provide crimes statistics for immigrants from different countries or geographic regions. These groups may not be racially homogeneous. One example being that many immigrants from some European countries may be gypsies.

Regardless, the crime rates of different immigrant groups can be predicted from their country of origin using country level variables such as average measured IQ, prevalence of Islam, and general socioeconomic development. Average country and group differences regarding variables such as average IQ have been argued to partly reflect average genetic group differences.[62][63][64] Regarding the association with Islam, see the section "Culture/subculture". Another reported association is with the average height of the populations of the immigrant's countries of origin, with lower average height being associated with lower crime rates for immigrant groups.[65][66]

France

A recent "tradition" is mass burning of cars. The practice has been stated to have begun in the 1990s, in Strasbourg’s high-immigrant districts, and to have quickly spread to other areas. On New Years Eve 2017-2018, around 1,000 cars were torched.[67]

Germany

In Germany, the situation has been described as a "migrant rape crisis", after recent mass immigration since 2015 of more one million, mostly male migrants from Africa, Asia and the Middle East. There were several reports of suppression of data about migrant criminality.[68]

A 2017 article stated that "In Cologne, random samples showed that in 2015, more than 40 percent of migrants from the Maghreb committed robbery or theft within the first year of their arrival [...] Germany’s police officers and authorities have been, in many respects, overwhelmed by the criminals from the lower classes of Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria. The young men often have a criminal record when they arrive in Germany, after having been street thieves or drug dealers in cities like Casablanca and Algiers. “Many apparently did not go to school and some can’t even write their own names,” says Jörg Grethe, head of the Karlsruhe task force. Unlike Georgians, the North Africans are not usually members of gangs, he says, with most of the men having met in refugee shelters.

Many are drug addicts, say investigators. They are often so high on alcohol, marijuana and prescription drugs that they become insensitive to pain and adopt a “devil-may-care attitude,” says criminal investigator Schulte, who headed the “Nafri” police project in 2013, an extensive analysis of offenders from the Maghreb countries. He characterizes these offenders as being “highly likely to commit violent acts,” ruthlessly using knives during their robberies, injuring victims or police officers. They often use false identities, refuse to cooperate during interrogations and rarely exhibit remorse, Schulte says, adding: “This reveals a high degree of contempt for our legal system."[69]

See also Taharrush gamea.

Sweden

A study by the Swedish governmental organization responsible for official crime statistics examined crime during the 1997-2001 period. The study included all residents in Sweden between the ages of 15 and 51. The crimes included were those reported to the police and for which the police had registered a reasonable suspicion regarding the offender. The first number below are the over-representations for foreign born from different geographic areas. It includes both males and females. The second number is percentage of each group who became reasonably suspect of a crime during the studied five-year period.[70]

  • Africa, not North or East: +430% (26,3%)
  • North Africa: +370% (23,3%)
  • West Asia: +280% (18.8%)
  • East Africa: +250% (17,5%)
  • South America: +230% (16,4%)
  • Central Asia: +220% (16,1%)
  • Southern Asia: +220% (15,8%)
  • Europe, not EU, including Turkey: +160% (13,2%)
  • European Union, new countries: +130% (11,4%)
  • South East Asia: +110% (10,5%)
  • Nordic Countries: +70% (8,7%)
  • Not classified: +60% (7,8%)
  • European Union, other countries: +40% (7,2%)
  • United States, Canada, Australia och New Zealand: +10% (5,5%)
  • East Asia: +0 (5,2%)

Note that the stated numbers are combined numbers for both sexes and only concerns crimes during this particular five-year period. Prevalence numbers may possibly have been even higher, if considering lifetime crime rates, only male (especially young male) crime rates, and that many crimes are never reported to the police, and that even for known crimes the police may have no suspects.

There were also large differences regarding different crime types, with foreign born over-representation being particularly high for many violent crimes and being the highest for rape. This may be problematic for many politically correct explanations for the over-representations, such as socioeconomic factors, since if poverty was the main explanation, then an expectation may be that property crimes, such as theft, would have the highest over-representations. The average over-representation for all foreign born for all crime types was +150%. Controlling for differences regarding age, sex, education, and income only reduced this number to +110%. For rape, the over-representation was +410.[71] See also the article on the sociologist's fallacy.

Some Swedish studies have examined the relationship between immigrants from specific countries and specific crimes, such as rape. They have found very high over-representations for immigrants from some countries for rape, much higher than above mentioned general over-representation for all immigrants for rape.[72]

United States

See the section "United States": "Hispanic and immigrant crime".

Immigrants, drugs, and smuggling

Immigrant groups may have various associations with drug crimes and drug abuse:

  • Organized crime is often organized along ethnic lines, which may cause effects such as illegal drug smuggling being conducted by immigrant organized crime groups from drug producing areas.
  • Some immigrant groups have increased risk of drug use and abuse, such as Mexican immigrants to the Untied States.[73] See also the section "Immigration and crime": "Germany".
  • Some new drugs in the Western world, such as khat, are due to the mass immigration of groups traditionally using it.
  • See the "refugee" article on various form of crimes related to the "refugee industry".
  • Organized crime groups smuggling illegal immigrants/"refugees" may also be engaged in related activities, such as trafficking and smuggling of illegal drugs.
  • Illegal immigrants are often used for drug smuggling.[74]
  • Nearly 30% of the illegal immigrant children the U.S. is currently holding in its secure dormitories had ties to criminal gangs, the government revealed in 2017, suggesting associations with the country’s growing problem with MS-13 (with roots in El Salvador) and other gangs. "Federal officials refused even to guess at the true scope of the problem, telling the Senate Judiciary Committee that they can give only small snapshots of what they see. But they said the devastation on communities across the country is clear: killings and chaos, particularly among other immigrants — both legal and illegal." An international form of crime, specifically associated with immigration, was extortion by the gangs, by threatening with violence against relatives back in Central America, unless those in the U.S. pay them off. The M-13 was also involved in crimes such as drug dealing and trafficking.[75]

Criminality in interracial relationship and by mixed race individuals

See the article Effects of race mixing‎.

Causes of racial differences

IQ

Richard Lynn has in the books Race Differences in Intelligence and The Global Bell Curve argued that there is a relationship between IQ and crime, which is an important explanation for differing crime rates across the world, due to the relationship between race and intelligence.

In his book The g Factor (1998), Arthur Jensen cited data which shows that, regardless of race, people with IQs between 70 and 90 have higher crime rates than people with IQs below or above this range, with the peak range being between 80 and 90.[76] According to Jensen, when crime rates are compared between races after adjusting for IQ, they are approximately the same. Thus, Jensen proposes, the disparity in crime rates between races can be explained by the proportions of each group with IQs in the range at greatest risk for criminal behavior.[77]

Psychopathy

The Bell Curve argued that the IQ differences cannot explain all of the racial differences regarding crime. Richard Lynn has argued that an additional factor is that races differ in their average degree of psychopathy, which is a personality trait associated with crime.[78][79][80] Robert Hare, creator of the most widely used psychopathy test, reported in a 2008 study on a general population sample that Blacks scored on average 3.86 vs. 1.7 for Whites.[81]

A related concept is antisocial behavior/antisocial personality disorder that may use somewhat different but related measurement instruments. In a 2009 literature review, most studies had found that Blacks have higher rates than Whites regarding being diagnosed as antisocial. Inconsistencies may be due to small samples in some studies.[1]

Several meta-analyses of studies done on prisoners have not found differences in average psychopathy scores between Black and White prisoners. But this is only evidence for that there is no racial discrimination regarding psychopathy in the justice system, so that psychopaths from both races are equally likely to end up in prison.[1]

Testosterone

Crime rates are higher for males than for females and increase in adolescence, as testosterone levels rise, and decline as crime rates decline with advancing age. Castration of males is usually accompanied by decreased aggression.[1]

Studying the influence of testosterone is complicated, due to factors such that blood testosterone levels varying with time of days, differences regarding bound vs. free testosterone, etc. Testosterone levels in the cerebrospinal fluid are likely more important for behaviors, but are difficult to measure. In addition, there may be differences regarding testosterone receptor sensitivity or other "downstream" effects. Furthermore, there are other androgenic hormones, such as dihydrotestosteron och androstenedion, and female sex hormones may have effects as well. In addition, testosterone levels during fetal development are high, contributes to the early sexual differentiation, and may be involved in later behaviors.

Studies have usually only used measured testosterone in blood/saliva and may therefore not measure total effects of androgenic hormones very well. Regardless, these testosterone levels are according to most studies associated with criminality and personality characteristics/behaviors associated with criminality in adults and often also with aggression.[1]

Race differences regarding testosterone or sex hormones more generally (not necessarily blood level differences) have been proposed as an explanation for racial differences regarding crime as well as for other racial differences. See also Other race differences: Femininity vs. masculinity

Low activity expression of MAO-A

Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is a type of enzyme found throughout the body and also in the brain. The activity of MAO in the blood is according to studies almost entirely due to genetic factors. Studies have almost always found that criminals tend to have unusually low levels of MAO activity in their blood. There are also studies linking low blood activity with antisocial behavior, physical aggression, impulsiveness, and sensation seeking.[1]

MAO exists in the two slightly different forms, MAO-A and MAO-B, that are coded by different genes, and with somewhat different functions. In addition, there are also different variants of MAO-A, which cause different enzyme activity. Studies have examined the relationship between MAO-A gene variants causing lower enzyme activity and behaviors such as criminality, antisocial behavior, and aggression. The results have been somewhat mixed, which may be due to the low activity gene variants having a stronger negative effect if they are combined with other factors, such as low IQ, high testosterone, smoking during pregnancy, poverty, and child abuse. One study found only a weak association with aggression without a perceived provocation, but a stronger effect when there was a perceived provocation.[1][82][83][84][85]

Low enzyme activity MAO-A gene variants have sometimes been described as "The Warrior Gene", although this is problematic for several reasons, such as there also being other genes associated with aggression.

Different races/populations have different frequencies of the gene variants causing low enzyme activity. Populations with a high frequency include United States Blacks. A 2013 United States study examined the different gene variants causing lower activity and found a stronger association with criminality, violent behaviors, and antisocial behaviors for the variant causing the lowest enzyme activity (MAO-A-2R). MAO-A-2R was found in 5.2% of Blacks compared to 0.1% of Caucasians. MAO-A-3R, which causes somewhat higher but still relatively low enzyme activity, was found in 52.3% of Blacks and 37.0% of Caucasians.[82][85] A 2014 study found that African-American males with the MAO-A-2R allele had an increased risk of stabbing and shooting behaviors and that this risk was independent of environmental factors.[86]

Differential K theory

J. Philippe Rushton in his book Race, Evolution and Behavior applied r-K selection theory to human races (differential K theory) and examined many different variables, including crime. Several of the reported race differences regarding personality traits (such as aggression, cautiousness, and impulsivity) may be related to race differences regarding crime.

Several later studies have stated support for this theory, as explaining differences between countries regarding violent crime rates and other variables, and that this was a more important explanation than economic factors.[2][87]

Racial differences regarding evolutionary adaptations to more complex societies

Contrary to the myth of the "peaceful savage" or the "noble savage", research on the degree of violence in different societies has generally found a very high degree of violence among hunter-gathers and a decreasing degree in increasingly more complex societies. This applies both to violence within the group and between groups. For example the book A Troublesome Inheritance: Genes, Race and Human History has argued that one explanation is that genetic adaptations to increasingly more frequent and complex interactions with non-relatives and strangers have caused evolutionary changes, such as decreasing aggression. A societal change where it is society, instead of individuals or related groups, that punish crime could have the same effect. However, different populations/races who have lived in different kind of societies may have differences regarding such evolutionary adaptations.

A possible counter-argument is that these more complex societies have not existed long enough for evolutionary changes to happen. However, experimental studies on rats and foxes have proven that it is possible to quickly create very large groups differences regarding aggression and related traits, by selecting for low or high aggression during selective breeding.[88]

A 2015 study argued that a large decline in violence over the last millennium in most of Europe was largely due to genetic changes in the population, due to societal selective forces against violent men. "Courts imposed the death penalty more and more often and, by the late Middle Ages, were condemning to death between 0.5 and 1.0% of all men of each generation, with perhaps just as many offenders dying at the scene of the crime or in prison while awaiting trial. Meanwhile, the homicide rate plummeted from the 14th century to the 20th. The pool of violent men dried up until most murders occurred under conditions of jealousy, intoxication, or extreme stress. [...] conclude that such natural selection could explain a little over half of the reduction in the homicide rate. The rest of the decline may have partly resulted from violent men being increasingly marginalized in society and on the marriage market."[89][90]

See also the article Noble savage.

Alcohol

Racial genetic differences regarding alcohol, such as factors influencing susceptibility to alcohol abuse, have been argued to be an explanation for racial differences regarding alcoholism and various alcohol related problems, including alcohol related criminality, such as drunk driving. For example, Amerindians "who suffer from extremely high alcoholism rates, did not have large supplies of alcohol until approximately 300 years ago. These differences in susceptibility are exactly what we should expect given the fact that alcoholism is a hereditary disease. The implication is that the longer an ethnic group is exposed to alcohol, the lower its members’ susceptibility to alcoholism. This relationship is consistent with the principle of natural selection whereby those people with a high genetic susceptibility are eliminated over many generations, resulting in a lower susceptibility rate for the entire group."[91]

See Race and morphology/physiology: Alcohol on genetic differences regarding alcohol metabolism.

Bias in the justice system

Many people (especially non-Whites) in the United States believe that the justice system is biased against non-Whites. This has caused resentment, lack of cooperation with the police, and even been seen as justification for committing crime against Whites. However, for almost all crimes the percentages of those arrested who are Black are actually lower than the percentages of offenders who crime victims, in the large National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), state are Black. Overall, Blacks are 26% less likely to be arrested than non-Blacks who have committed the same crime. This despite Blacks committing more serious crimes, such as being more likely to use a gun or knife in robberies. Several others measures also show that the United States police is biased in favor of Blacks when making arrests. This may be due to increasing political correctness and fear of being accused of "racism" when arresting Blacks.[3]

Studies on actions by prosecutors and judges in the United States similarly show no systematic bias against Blacks and Hispanics.[3]

A 2013 study found no evidence of racial discrimination in criminal justice (CJ) processing and stated that "One of the most consistent findings in the criminological literature is that African American males are arrested, convicted, and incarcerated at rates that far exceed those of any other racial or ethnic group. This racial disparity is frequently interpreted as evidence that the criminal justice system is racist and biased against African American males. Much of the existing literature purportedly supporting this interpretation, however, fails to estimate properly specified statistical models that control for a range of individual-level factors. [...] This racial disparity, however, was completely accounted for after including covariates for self-reported lifetime violence and IQ. [...] Results suggest that IQ and lifetime violence account for racial gaps in CJ processing."[92]

Studies in the United States, using realistic simulations, have found that police officers (as well as the general public) were less likely to shoot Black men than White men or Hispanic men. This likely because the likelihood of being accused of racism and the likelihood of there being a large social outcry is far greater when shooting a Black man. That police officers despite this relatively often did shoot Blacks was due to Blacks being more involved in violent crime.[93] Supporting this is statistics showing that the share of all homicide deaths that is due to shootings by police is three times lower for all Black homicide deaths than for all Whites/Hispanic homicide deaths.[94] A examination stated that "Thus, across multiple data sources, we see that, if anything, Blacks make up a lower proportion of those killed by police than what we would expect given their crime rates. In light of this, there is no justifiable reason for supposing that the police are running around unjustly killing Blacks."[95]

Many different forms of inaccuracies and anti-White bias in politically correct media descriptions of police violence have been reported. One example is that "Of the 509 officers feloniously killed in the past 10 years, 46 percent of the perpetrators were black, despite their representing only 13 percent of the population."[9]

A 2015 study by Ross is being frequently cited as evidence for bias against Blacks in police shootings. This has been criticized for a variety of reasons and the result that police kill Blacks more than Whites is argued to fit well with that Blacks are more aggressive against the police than Whites are.[96]

A 2016 study found “no statistically significant difference between killings of black suspects by black and white officers.[97]

The 2016 "The Color of Crime" report stated that the statistics on Blacks shot and killed by the police were well within what would be expected given race differences in crime rates and likelihood to resist arrest. Furthermore, "In 2015, police killings of blacks accounted for approximately 4 percent of homicides of blacks. Police killings of unarmed blacks accounted for approximately 0.6 percent of homicides of blacks. The overwhelming majority of black homicide victims (93 percent from 1980 to 2008) were killed by blacks."[4]

"The evidence suggests that if there is police racial bias in arrests it is negligible. Victim and witness surveys show that police arrest violent criminals in close proportion to the rates at which criminals of different races commit violent crimes."[4]

"Almost without exception, the black/white and Hispanic/ white arrest multiples are lower for the less serious crimes. Whatever else this difference may mean, it is strong evidence that the police are not making biased arrests. Police have broad discretion as to whether they will arrest someone for forcible touching, shoplifting, or setting off a false fire alarm. If racist police wanted to vent prejudices on non-whites, these are the crimes for which they could most easily do so. They can walk away if someone complains he was spat on, and if they are racist they can walk away if the spitter is white but make an arrest if the spitter is black. Police cannot walk away if someone is lying on the sidewalk bleeding from a knife wound. They must try to make an arrest, whatever the race of the suspect. The graphs that show the lowest non-white/ white arrest multiples are for crimes in which police have the greatest arrest discretion and are therefore strong evidence that New York City police are not biased in their arrest patterns."[4]

Anti-police activism

A leaked internal 2017 FBI report "reveals the agency believes the mainstream media and the Black Lives Matter movement are responsible for a recent spike in attacks on police officers. [...] "Law enforcement officials believe that defiance and hostility displayed by assailants toward law enforcement appears to be the new norm," reads the report. [...] The bombshell report also cites two brutal cop-killings in which “the assailants said they were influenced by the Black Lives Matter movement,” [...] Biased, politically motivated reporting by the mainstream media — which sought to bolster the progressive narrative of a systemically racist America and garner sympathy for the Obama administration’s war on police — is also responsible for the current anti-police milieu, according to the report. [...] A December report by the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund (NLEOMF) found that 64 officers were shot to death in 2016 compared to 41 in 2015, a 56 percent increase. The NLEOMF report found that 21 of those killings occurred in ambush-style shootings. The FBI report examined 50 of those killings and found that in 14 of them the suspect’s sole motive was the desire to kill police officers."[98]

Another stated related effect is that locations that have had anti-police protests and riots have had a spike in murder and violent crime rates. "Agitation by groups such as Black Lives Matter, encouraged by slanted media coverage, has led to a retrenchment among big-city police forces. Street cops are so worried about being vilified by city leaders and the press that they are avoiding contact with the criminal element [...} the federal government, under Barack Obama and his two Attorney Generals piled on". A causal link between this and a country-wide rise in homicides has also been argued. This has been referred to as the "Ferguson Effect".[99]

Increasingly multicultural London with increasing crime now has much higher rates of rape, robbery, and violent assault than New York City. More political correctness in London regarding policing is one argued contributing factor.[100]

Socioeconomic factors

See also: The sociologist's fallacy

If poverty is the main explanation for group differences regarding crime, then an expectation would be particularly high over-representations for property crimes, such as various forms of non-violent theft, not the actual very high over-representations for non-property, violent crimes, such as rape and assault. See also the section "Immigration and crime".

The correlation between violent crime rates and the percentages of state populations in the United States that are Black and Hispanic is 0.81. Controlling for poverty, education, and unemployment only reduces this to 0.78.[3]

Differences in crime between countries have often been suggested to be caused by socioeconomic factors, but for African and Caribbean countries, an association between higher crime rates and higher GDP/person has been found.[2] Increased economic development of ethnically heterogeneous countries has been suggested to increase ethnic conflicts, by increasing contacts between different ethnicities, who previously lived separated from one another. See the article on Ethnic heterogeneity.

A very large nationwide study in Sweden, which included everyone born in 1989-1993 (more than 500,000 persons), found a strong association between low childhood family income and subsequent violent criminality and substance misuse. But this relationship completely disappeared after adjusting for unobserved familial risk factors, such as genetic differences.[101]

A 2016 United States study found that although higher levels of wealth were associated with lower rates of incarceration, the likelihood of future incarceration was still higher for Blacks at every level of wealth compared to the White likelihood. Even rich Black kids more likely to go to prison than poor White kids. One of the researchers stated that “Race trumps class, at least when it comes to incarceration”.[102][103]

Culture/subculture

Effects caused by different cultures/subculture associated with different races are another possible explanation. This is however a politically problematic explanation, since it implies that all cultures are not equal.

A particular culture/subculture could have a higher risk of causing criminality than other cultures/subculture, by viewing criminality more favorably (in particular against out-groups), by having more criminal organizations such as gangs which could "teach" criminality, or by otherwise having more beliefs/behaviors which are risk factors for criminality (like more child abuse).

Black culture/subculture phenomena such as gang subculture, hip hop subculture (including gangsta rap), and aversion against "acting white" are possible examples.

Gypsies have been stated to have traditions that emphasize voluntary separation from mainstream societies. Many do not send their children to school or work alongside non-Gypsies. The culture has been accused of encouraging crimes against the "gaje" [the non-Gypsy], often involving scams and burglaries, and often against the elderly.[104] See also Gypsies: Voluntary segregation from and crimes against non-Gypsy.

In the United Kingdom, non-White gangs (predominantly Pakistani) have raped, drugged, blackmailed, and prostituted large numbers of young White girls for at least 25 years (1400 girls in only one town). That this was/is possible has been explained as due to factors such as social workers and the police feared accusations of "racism" if revealing the crimes, those who did protest were often branded and summarily dismissed as being "far-right", many politicians had vested interests in the profitable "diversity" industry, and non-White communities were reluctant to reveal perpetrators who committed crimes against outside groups. For example the BBC has been accused of covering up the ethnic aspects in their reporting, even after the crimes become public knowledge. Islamic misogyny and hostility towards non-Muslims as well as other cultural factors have also been seen as having contributed. An almost identical pattern has been seen in for example Holland, with perpetrators from Turkey/Morocco.[105][106][107] An investigation in 2016 found that these crimes were still ongoing on a massive scale.[108] In 2017, the police was investigating 179 new sex crimes involving 165 child sex abuse suspects in the small town Keighley.[109] A 2017 report stated anti-White racism by perpetrators and that "Girls from the Asian community are seen as commodities to be “protected”, whereas girls from outside of the community are seen as fair game." In England and Wales between 2005 and 2017, 58 grooming gangs had been prosecuted and 264 individuals convicted.[110]

In France, Muslims make up 60% of all prison inmates, while being only 12% of the total population. 7 out of 10 burglaries, assaults, and violent thefts are committed by first- or second-generation immigrants. Most of these seem to be Muslim, although a third of them may be West Indians, Africans, and Roma of nominally Christian background. Muslims seem to be especially over-represented in serious violent crimes that lead to prison sentences. Similar trends are developing elsewhere. Muslims make up 70% all prison inmates in Spain and 45% in Belgium. In England and Wales, the figure is only 14%, versus 4.7% of the total population, apparently because certain other communities are likewise over-represented. Studies in Denmark, Norway, and Finland have found that the prevalence of Islam in the immigrants’ home country was the single best predictor of the degree of criminality and violent crime by immigrant groups. One proposed explanation is that Islam heightens the sense of difference between the in-group (fellow Muslims) and the out-group (the host society). Non-Muslims are outsiders and thus legitimate targets for acts that would be considered wrong, if done against Muslims. Another is that Islam is not the cause, but instead that many Muslims come from honor cultures (although Islam may have contributed to honor cultures being frequent). A third is genetic and similar to the one in the section "Racial differences regarding evolutionary adaptations to more complex societies".[111]

The frequencies of child maltreatment, child abuse and child homicide differ between races/ethnicities.[78]

Supporters of genetic explanations have argued that there may be genetics involved in phenomena such as child abuse being associated with later criminality. Thus, genes contributing to child abuse by parents may be inherited by the child and then contribute to criminal behaviors later in life. Genes may also affect which environment a person chooses to be in. Thus, while there is an association between having contacts with juvenile delinquents and becoming a juvenile delinquent, research has found support for that choosing to be in such an environment is genetically influenced.[112]

See also the articles on knockout game and Taharrush‎.

White flight

High crime rates by other races has been argued to be an important cause of White flight.

Racial identification in law enforcement

While some countries, such as the United States and the United Kingdom, allow racial statistics and racial descriptions, in many countries, such as France, the state is legally banned from maintaining data based on race, which often makes the police issue wanted notices to the public that include labels like "dark skin complexion", and so on.

England and Wales uses two different systems for ethnic/racial classification. Physical appearance is used, for example, by the police when doing a Stop and Search or an arrest. Self-described race is used, for example, in census statistics.[113]

Racial profiling, where the police targets races or ethnicities that have a high likelihood of criminality or a specific crime (like Middle-Easterners in airport security), is highly controversial in some countries.

Genetic analysis has been successful in helping police identify both victims and perpetrators by identifying a person's race and giving an indication of what identifying characteristics to look for, such as skin, hair, and eye color. This method can also identify the origins and the physical characteristics of mixed race persons. To facilitate the work of officials trying to find individuals based on their genetics, firms providing genetic analysis also provide photographs of persons with genetics similar to that identified by the genetic analysis. Research is also being done on more exactly determining physical traits, such as hair texture, skull shape, or the distance between the eyes, possibly allowing a crude sketch of a suspect to be generated from a genetic sample.[114][115]

Forensic anthropologists can identify race with a very high accuracy, using only skeletal remains.[116]

See also

External links

The Color of Crime

Alternative Hypothesis

Other

Hate crimes against Whites and fake hate crimes

See Hate crime: External links.

Gallery

References

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