Other race differences

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This articles discusses other race differences that are not discussed in the other articles about races differences (see Template:Race differences) and when the text at the moment is too short to motivate a separate article.

Note that some of these differences are clearly caused by genetics, in other cases both genetic and environmental factors contribute and in some cases it is unclear if genetic factors contribute. A genetic contribution may be indirect such as by affecting personality traits which may in turn affect behaviors.

Contents

On human traits in general

"Heritability" refers to the proportion of the variation of a trait that is due to genetic factors. A 2015 meta-analysis of 17,804 human traits (both physical and mental) from 2,748 publications including 14,558,903 twin pairs found on average a heritability of 49%. The study concluded that "Our results provide compelling evidence that all human traits are heritable: not one trait had a weighted heritability estimate of zero."[1] Thus, the so-called "blank slate" theory is incorrect for every studied human trait.

These results regarding differences between individuals are not definitive evidence for that group differences are to some degree heritable. However, as stated in Race and intelligence: The genetics or not debate: Heritability and the "default hypothesis", the most probable "default hypothesis" is argued to be that differences between groups are heritable to a degree similar to differences between individuals. In addition, if looking at an increasing number of politically sensitive traits, then it becomes increasingly more unlikely that all of these politically sensitive group differences are not to some degree heritable.

Differences possibly caused by genetic and environmental factors

ADHD

A 2015 study found a strong negative relationship between population-level general intelligence (GI) and ADHD genetic factors and suggested several possible explanations including that "ADHD and GI have undergone opposite selection pressure, that is ancestral environments that selected for higher GI also selected against behavioral predispositions to ADHD, such as inattention and impulsivity. In such a hypothetical scenario, harsher environments could have placed more demands on focused attention and problem solving skills that resulted in survival and fitness differentials among carriers of different alleles."[2]

Brain anatomy

Regarding general brain size differences, see Race and intelligence: The genetics or not debate: Brain size

A 2010 study used MRI volumetric scanning in order to examine average brain differences between African-Americans and Caucasians. The African-Americans had on average smaller cerebral volumes. The study also examined a few more specific brain structures and found that the African-Americans despite the smaller average cerebral volumes had larger average left orbitofrontol cortex volumes than the Caucasians. After adjusting for the smaller average cerebral volumes, the African-Americans had relatively larger average orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala volumes.[3] The significance of the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala differences are unclear but the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala are involved in functions such as emotional evaluations and reactions.

The study also stated that the frequency of many gene variants, including those involved in brain function and structure, differs substantially across ethnic and racial populations. As an example the study mentioned gene variants associated with frontotemporal structure and function and that differed in frequency between African-Americans and Caucasian Americans of European descent.[3]

Speculatively, it has been suggested that group differences regarding higher brain structure/function and lower brain structure/function may correspond to the group differences described in the article on differential K theory.[4]

Several studies have found various brain anatomy differences between Caucasians and Chinese.[5][6][7]

Australian Aborigines have been reported to have on average a larger right visual cortex than Europeans. The right hemisphere deals with spatial abilities. This racial difference has been argued to be consistent with the results mentioned in the section "Visual memory" below.[8]

A 2015 study found that the shape of the surface layer of the human brain (the cortex) predicts an individual's degree(s) of genetic ancestry from four different ancestral populations. The ancestral population used were Africans, Amerindians, East Asians, and Europeans. The results were similar to those from earlier studies based on measuring human skulls (craniometry).[9]

Regarding the cephalic index, see the article on Nordicism.

Clannishness

Clannishness has been defined as a set of behaviors and innate behavioral traits and predispositions which, when found in a population, result in the members of that population strongly favoring, in all areas of life, themselves, their family members — both near and extended, and even closely allied associates (esp. in clannish societies which are not arranged into clans), while at the same time strongly disfavoring those considered to be non-family and all unrelated, non-allied associates. It has been argued to have partially genetic caused differences between different populations and to influence variables such as level of human development, the strength of democracy and democratic institutions, scientific output, and levels of social trust.[10][11][12]

Collectivism vs. Individualism/Tightness vs. Looseness

Studies have found differences between different countries regarding the degree of collectivism vs. individualism, various associations with other variables such as economic growth and happiness, and differences between different populations regarding the frequency of gene variants involved in brain functions that may influence the degree of individualism and collectivism.[13]

A 2014 study in China found that people from rice-farming areas in southern China have a more collectivist mindset than people from traditional wheat-farming areas in northern China. Rice farming is labor-intensive and requires irrigation which forces communal cooperation. Wheat farming is more individualistic. Factors such as climate and urbanization did not explain the difference. This may also be associated with people from northern China being perceived as less conflict-aversive and more straightforward and having more divorces and more patents. The difference regarding mindset does not affect only interpersonal relations but also what associations are perceived between inanimate objects and how they are categorized. The larger individualistic mindset in northern China was still not as large as that in Europeans who has traditionally grown wheat and similar crops. Preliminary evidence suggested a similar situation in India where however the rice-wheat difference is geographically east-west rather than north-south.[14]

Other studies have instead proposed that differences between countries regarding collectivism vs. individualism and the somewhat related concept of tightness vs. looseness can be explained as collectivism/tightness being more prevalent if facing frequent threats (such as high natural disaster prevalence, high infectious disease prevalence, food scarcity, and frequent territorial conflicts) that can be better solved with strong social coordination. There are also associations with population differences regarding degree of anxiety/depression, kinds of cognitive biases, differences regarding moral thinking, differences regarding brain activation in response to tasks, and differing frequencies of certain gene variants involved in brain functions in different populations.[15][16][17]

Creativity and innovation

The book Human Accomplishment: The Pursuit of Excellence in the Arts and Sciences, 800 B.C. to 1950 stated the overwhelming majority of the known outstanding contributors to science have been Europeans. This despite the somewhat higher measured average IQ of East Asians. One proposed explanation for this is higher European creativity which is often seen as a characteristic different from IQ. This has argued to been supported by differences regarding personality traits related to creativity.[18]

National differences regarding innovation have been associated with differences regarding average personality traits.[19]

Personality traits have also been argued to explain why some populations have won few Nobel prizes despite high average IQ. A 2015 study stated that "Most scientific discoveries have originated from Europe, and Europeans have won 20 times more Nobel Prizes than have Northeast Asians. We argue that this is explained not by IQ, but by interracial personality differences, underpinned by differences in gene distribution. In particular, the variance in scientific achievement is explained by differences in inquisitiveness (DRD4 7-repeat), psychological stability (5HTTLPR long form), and individualism (mu-opioid receptor gene; OPRM1 G allele). Northeast Asians tend to be lower in these psychological traits, which we argue are necessary for exceptional scientific accomplishments. Since these traits comprise a positive matrix, we constructed a q index (measuring curiosity) from these gene frequencies among world populations. It is found that both IQ scores and q index contribute significantly to the number of per capita Nobel Prizes."[20][21]

Emotional intelligence

A 2014 study stated lower measured emotional intelligence for Blacks than for Whites.[22]

Empathy and ethnocentrism

Whites have been argued to have high affective empathy (see Pathological altruism: Cognitive empathy, affective empathy, and shame/guilt cultures) but low ethnocentrsim (see Racial genetic interests: Group differences regarding ethnocentrism).

Eye movement behavior

A 2014 study stated that "A central claim of cultural neuroscience is that the culture to which an individual belongs plays a key role in shaping basic cognitive processes and behaviours, including eye movement behaviour... we compared a group of 70 Chinese overseas students (whose primary cultural exposure was that of mainland China), a group of 45 participants whose parents were Chinese but who themselves were brought up in the UK (whose primary cultural exposure was western European) and a group of 70 Caucasian participants... culture cannot explain the observed differences in behaviour."[23]

Femininity vs. masculinity

Asians are stereotypically viewed as relatively more feminine compared to Whites while Blacks are stereotypically viewed as relatively more masculine. One study found that this perception occurred also on an implicit (subconscious) level. Another study argued that men are more attracted to Asian women relative to Black women, while women are more attracted to Black men relative to Asian men. This since females on average prefer masculine males and males on average prefer feminine females. Statistics on interracial marriages were argued to follow this with 75% of Asian-White marriages consisting of a White husband and an Asian wife and with 73% of Black-White marriages consisting of a Black husband and White wife.[24]

In a study in which participants evaluated job candidates, Asians were more likely to be selected for a leadership position that required collaboration and relationship building, traits typically perceived as feminine. Black candidates were more likely to be chosen for positions that required a fiercely competitive approach, typically seen as masculine.[24]

Another study analyzed data the National Collegiate Athletic Association's regarding 30 different collegiate sports and found that the more a sport was perceived to be masculine the greater the relative number of Black to Asian athletes.[24]

Such systematic racial differences regarding perceptions and effects are likely difficult to explain using non-biological explanations. But they can be easily explained by racial differences regarding sex hormone systems. General indications that there may be racial differences related to differences regarding sex hormones include that different populations differ regarding variables such as frequency of prostate cancer and the digit ratio which is a crude measure of prenatal androgen exposure.[25]

There are numerous genetic population differences regarding genes affecting the androgen system.[26]

A 2015 study stated that "Differential-K theory proposes that levels of androgen, i.e. male hormone, differ across three large racial groups with Sub-Saharan Africans having the highest levels, East Asians the lowest, and Caucasians (Europeans, North Africans and South Asians) being intermediate. In this study, we found that most of the national-level indicators of androgen – CAG repeats on the AR gene, androgenic hair, prostate cancer incidence, sex frequency and number of sex partners – are positively correlated at the population (country) level. East Asians showed signs of the lowest androgen level for most indicators and were lower than Caucasians on all of them. Sub-Saharan Africans showed inconsistent results. The results provide a partial validation of Differential-K theory."[27]

See also Race and crime: Testosterone, Differential K theory, and Race and physical attractiveness.

Hajnal line

The Hajnal line is a border that links Saint Petersburg, Russia and Trieste, Italy. In 1965, John Hajnal discovered that it divides Europe into two areas characterized by different patterns of marriage and fertility. To the west of the line, marriage rates and thus fertility were comparatively low and a significant minority of women married late or remained single; to the east of the line and in the Mediterranean and select pockets of Northwestern Europe, early marriage was the norm and high fertility was countered by high mortality.

This has been argued to be associated with various behavioral and genetic differences.[28]

Honor culture

The existence or not of an honor culture in a population is usually explained by environmental factors (such as the presence or not of an effective police) but it is possible that genetic factors may also contribute.

Languages, folk music, and folk tales

Studies have shown that genetically similar populations tend to have similar languages, folk music, and folk tales.[29][30][31]

Leadership style and corporate corruption

A 2014 study argued that observed genetic population differences may influence differences regarding leadership styles and corporate corruption associated with such leadership styles (such as the "self-protective leadership" style common in Asian countries).[32]

Life satisfaction, happiness, depression, anxiety, and addiction

Genetics possible influencing negative and positive perceptions and emotions are potentially involved in numerous behaviors. This section will only mention some studies not already covered elsewhere.

Various illegal and legal drugs affecting happiness, depression, and anxiety correspond to various substances produced by the brain and with similar effects to those of the drugs. Different individuals have genetic differences regarding these substances and related brain systems which may explain various differences such as differences regarding drug addiction. There are also genetic population differences regarding this. For example, the frequency a gene variant affecting anandamide (which has effects similar to cannabis) differs widely among different ethnic group.[33]

A 2014 study of immigrants to Australia found that higher average life satisfaction if coming from a country with a higher average life satisfaction and if coming from a country with a higher frequency of a gene variant known to be associated with resilience under life stresses. These two relationships were independent, which the study argued suggested that both culture and gene matter.[34]

A 2012 study argued that racial differences regarding alcohol use may be related to measured racial differences regarding sensation seeking and impulsivity.[35]

Military and war

Various less politically correct racial differences regarding the performance of military personnel have been argued.[36] This despite military organizations often having minimal IQ requirements.

There are various controversies and conspiracy theories involving Jews and wars, such as regarding draft-dodging, war-profiteering, incitements to wars, uprisings and overthrows of governments, ethnic networking, and Israel.[37] See also conspiracy theories involving Jews.

A specific "Western Way of War" has been argued by, for example, Victor Davis Hanson. This includes many more aspects than just superior technology. However, Hanson does not discuss possible genetic influences on this.

Musical abilities and music genres

The book Race differences in Intelligence stated that it has often been suggested that Africans have a strong sense of rhythm. Musical abilities can be tested by different tests measuring abilities such as pitch discrimination, tone discrimination, musical memory, and rhythm sense. Racial differences regarding this have tested in several studies. The book listed such studies and compared them using a point system similar to the point system used in IQ tests and with the US White average result defined to be 100 points. Regarding rhythm sense US Blacks scored on average 96-106 in five different studies. In three of the studies they scored above the White average (including the study with the by far largest number of participants) and below the White average in one study. Regarding all the other music abilities the US Blacks scored on average 83-90 in the five studies.[8]

The book suggested that such differences is one explanation for a strong rhythmic element in Black music and also an explanation for a stated Black under-representation in classical music.[8]

A study on Amerindians using the same methodology found an average Amerindian rhythm sense of 104 and an average Amerindian score of 92 regarding other musical abilities (again compared to a White average of 100).[8]

Several twin studies were argued to support that musical abilities have a genetic basis.[8]

Neonate behavior

The book The g Factor: The Science of Mental Ability stated that "black and white infants, both in Africa and in America, differ markedly in psychomotor behavior even within the first few days and weeks after birth. Black neonates are more precocious in psychomotor development, on average, than whites, who are more precocious in this respect than Asians. This is true even when the black, white, and Asian babies were born in the same hospital to mothers of similar SES background who gave birth under the same obstetrical conditions. Early precocity in motor behavior among blacks also appears to be positively related to degree of African ancestry and is negatively related to their SES. African blacks are more precocious than American blacks, and, at least in the United States, black infants of lower SES are more precocious in motor development than blacks of middle and upper-middle SES. (The same SES relationship is also observed in whites.) These behavioral differences appear so early (e.g., one or two days after deliv­ery, when the neonates are still in hospital and have had little contact with the mothers) that purely cultural or environmental explanations seem unlikely. Sub­stantiated in at least three dozen studies, these findings constitute strong evidence for innate behavioral differences between groups."[38]

See also the article on the differential K theory regarding group differences in maturation age.

See also the Racial genetic interests: Race and perception on various kinds of research on differences regarding perception, empathy, and preference for other individuals, depending on if they are of the same race or not, even in infants.

North-south differences

Many human traits (both physical and mental) have been argued to vary on a north-south axis. This both between countries and within countries. This has been argued to ultimately be due to climate differences causing genetic differences. Some examples are skin color, IQ (see race and intelligence) and the differential K theory.

Some historical racial theories such as Nordicism may also be related to this.

Pain sensitivity

Studies have found racial differences regarding pain sensitivity.[39]

Perceptions of emotions and personality

Studies have found evidence against the view that all human cultures/ethnicities express and interpret basic emotions using the same non-verbal cues such as the same facial expressions.[40]

A 2011 study found that inferring the personality of other persons based on their behaviors varies with culture/ethnicity. Such differences occur at low level brain functions which challenges the notion that such differences are superficial.[41]

See also Racial genetic interests: Race and perception.

Personality traits

This section discusses racial differences regarding personality traits in general. See other sections in this article regarding certain specific personality traits.

Studies have found that average personality traits differ in different geographic regions. People from neighboring geographic regions tend to have more similar personality traits than people from geographically distant regions.[42][43]

Several evolutionary explanations for such differences have been proposed. The book A Troublesome Inheritance: Genes, Race and Human History suggested that large differences between different human societies have selected for different genetic personality traits in different societies. For example, different societies vary regarding the degree of population density, the degree of contact with non-relatives, the degree of hierarchy, the pressure for conformity, the degree of internal and external violence, the degree of trade, etc. Such differences may favor different personality types.

There may also have been different evolutionary selection pressures for different groups living in the same area that may have caused group differences including regarding personality traits. For example, see the Culture of Critique series.

Another possibility is different evolutionary pressures due to factors such as different climate and different prevalence of infectious diseases. For example, it has been suggested that some personality traits that may decrease the risk of contracting infectious diseases are more common in areas with a high prevalence of infectious diseases.[44]

A 2011 review stated that studies on personality traits have shown a contrast between European and American populations and Asian and African populations. The former were higher in extraversion and openness to experience and lower in agreeableness. The population differences were smaller than those for IQ. Another finding was that several personality differences between men and women were larger in countries with higher levels of human development including long and healthy life, equal access to knowledge and education, and economic wealth. Emigrant populations had higher extraversion and openness to experience than those staying behind. On the other hand, national stereotypes such as those sometimes argued to distinguish neighboring European nations from one another did not have empirical support. An unexpected finding was that average self-reported conscientiousness correlated inversely with several external measures of a country's conscientiousness. One possible explanation (besides less/more conscientiousness populations tending to overstate/understate their conscientiousness) was that the conscientiousness trait is too broad and that expected correlations were found when looking at several narrower subtraits. Some contradictory results involving actions by small groups (such as higher average self-reported happiness in a population being associated with higher suicide rate) may possibly be explained as due to the small group committing suicide feeling more dissatisfied if most other people are satisfied.[45] For another explanation for differing suicide rates, see the article on the Differential K theory.

Cross-country research on the "Big Five" personality dimensions have been argued to be of limited reliability and validity when used at the level of country averages.[46]

Politics

An analysis of the 2015 UK elections argued for several similarities between voting patterns and genetic ancestry patterns.[47]

Researchers in 2015 stated that "analytical thinkers" (who tend to analyze the different parts of a situation) predominate in Western societies and is associated with liberalism. But they make up only about 15 percent of the world's population. "Holistic thinkers" (who more intuitively use the perception of whole objects or situations) was stated to predominate in much of the non-Western world and is associated with conservatism. Another association was that conservatives in the West like the holistic thinking majority worldwide tend to be more connected to their communities and may live in the same areas throughout their lives, maintaining strong social and familial bonds and commitments, and are more traditionally religious. Political orientation was somewhat influenced simply by training individuals to use a different thinking style.[48] See also the section " Collectivism vs. Individualism/Tightness vs. Looseness".

The 2009 book Limits to democratization argued that "all nations do not have equal chances to establish and maintain democratic systems. A central conclusion is that it is probably never possible to achieve the same level and quality of democracy in all countries of the world because of the impact of the two ultimate constraining factors (annual mean temperature and national IQ), which are outside conscious human control."[49]

See also Dysgenics: Pessimism regarding the future of Western civilization.

Reactions to emotional information

A 2015 study found that how vividly the brain reacts to positive and negative images varies depending on gene variants that appears in varying degrees across different ethnicities.[50]

Self-esteem and narcissism

A 2012 study stated that Black individuals have been found to report the highest levels of self-esteem of any racial group in the United States. The study itself found higher levels of narcissism in Blacks than in Whites and also that "the pathological aspects of narcissism were more strongly associated with maladjustment for Black individuals than for White individuals".[51]

A 2002 study found that Australian Aboriginal secondary school students had higher average self-esteem than Europeans. This has been argued to be remarkable considering the poorer average achievement of Australian Aboriginals. Similar results have been stated to have been found for African Americans in the United States and Africans and Britain.[52]

The high self-esteem also contradicts the argument that low self-esteem (due to factors such as racism by Whites) is causing the low achievement of these groups.[52]

Racial differences regarding self-esteem is one aspect of the differential K theory.

Sensation seeking and sexual behaviors

A 2010 study found that gene variants involved in the brain's reward system and that vary greatly between different populations are associated with differences regarding infidelity and sexual promiscuity. Other studies have found associations with sensation seeking, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), alcoholism, financial risk-taking, disinhibition and impulsivity, and other sexual behaviors. Such population differences may be related to the differential K theory. The results were argued to be consistent with genetic and behavioral patterns found globally such as population differences regarding the frequency of these gene variants between the generally polygamous and agonistic Yanomamö Amerindians of South America and the generally egalitarian !Kung in Southwest Africa.[53]

Size constancy

Size constancy is the ability to estimate the size of an object at a distance. A study which found low measured average IQ of San ("Bushmen") also found that they had more accurate size constancy than other Sub-Saharan Africans and Europeans. This was attributed to the need for this ability when using bow and arrow for hitting an animal at a distance. Also the women had high size constancy despite not hunting which was argued to support a genetic influence.[8]

Sleep

A 2015 study found race differences between European Americans and African Americans regarding sleep (controlled by the brain). Differences regarding the degree of African genetic ancestry was associated with differences regarding the depth of sleep.[54]

Also other populations differences regarding sleep have been reported. One proposed explanation is evolutionary adaptations to different climates such as in tropical climates it being beneficial to get some sleep when the temperature is at its peak and spend more time awake when it's more bearable.[55]

Startle response

A 2014 study stated that "For the baseline period, Asian participants exhibited a smaller startle response relative to Caucasian and Latino participants, who did not differ. Within each racial group, genetic ancestry was associated with baseline startle. Furthermore, genetic ancestry mediated racial group differences in baseline startle... This study adds to the growing literature on racial differences in emotional responding and provides preliminary evidence suggesting that genetic ancestry may play an important role. "[56]

Time preference

A 2015 study found average time preference differences between 53 different countries. This even after controlling for economic factors such as GDP, inflation rate and growth rate. The differences correlated with country differences regarding innovation, environmental protection, crediting rating, and body mass index after controlling for average county wealth.[57]

Tipping

Research has confirmed a widespread perception in the restaurant industry that Black customers tip less than do White customers. This occurs also among the middle-class, does not disappear when both groups get comparable service, and also occurs when the server is Black.[58]

Tolerance of strangers, homosexuals, and gender equality

A 2014 study argued that a cause of genetic population differences is parasite prevalence differences in different areas. This has as one effect led vulnerable populations to develop genetics conducive to avoidance of and less tolerance of strangers in order to reduce the risk of infection. This may also have caused less general tolerance affecting tolerance of homosexuality and gender equality as well as more stress, less happiness, and lower economic development through reduced cooperation between groups. Genetic differences between the populations in different countries were argued to support this.[59]

Values

Diagram where the axes show the degree of "Traditional values versus Secular-rational values" and "Survival values versus Self-expression values". The points represent different countries and the colors represent groups of similar countries.

The World Values Survey is a global research project that examines worldwide values and beliefs. The project conducts representative national surveys in many countries. These data are then analyzed by many different researchers. Social scientists conduct the project and consequently the differences are usually explained by politically correct environmental factors such as the degree of economic development.

One such well-known analysis argued that the values of different people mainly vary along two different dimensions: "Traditional values versus Secular-rational values" and "Survival values versus Self-expression values".[60]

A 2014 study argued that an analysis showed that another dimension is the r-K dimension described in the article about the differential K theory.[61]

A 2015 study stated that "We introduce new measures of cultural distance based on differences in average answers to questions from the World Values Survey. Using a simple theoretical model we hypothesize that ancestral distance, measured by genetic distance, is positively correlated with linguistic, religious, and cultural distance. An empirical exploration of these correlations shows this to be the case. This empirical evidence is consistent with the view that genetic distance is a summary statistic for a wide array of cultural traits transmitted intergenerationally."[62]

One example of differences in the same country is regarding attitudes towards animals. Large race differences were reported between Blacks and Whites in the US by a 1984 study which stated that "Race results suggested a comparative lack of interest in, and concern and affection for animals among nonwhites."[63]

Visual memory

Inuits had in a test of visual memory an average result of 106 compared to 100 for Whites. This has been argued to correspond to Inuits being able to navigate through a very similar arctic environment by memorizing only small landmarks. A high visual memory could have been developed through natural selection in order to find the way home after going out on long hunting expeditions. A genetic cause has been argued to be supported by visual memory having a high heritability and the race difference also being present in children.[8]

Also Amerindians and East Asians have a high measured visual memory. Possibly the ancestral population of northeast Asia evolved strong visual memory before they diverged into Amerindians, Arctic Peoples, and East Asians. The high visual ability of East Asians have sometimes been explained as due to the complicated writing systems used in East Asia but this has been argued to be disproven by East Asians without knowledge of such writing systems not scoring lower on visual memory than East Asians with such knowledge.[8]

A strong visual memory has also been reported in a study of Australian Aborigines as compared to Whites. This has similarly been suggested to be an adaptation to a desert environment with few landmarks. Aborigines who had lived in a town for several generations also had a high visual memory which has been argued to be evidence against an environmental explanation. However, other studies of Aborigines have found possibly contradictory results, although there may compatible explanations, such as the studied group having lived in a coastal instead of a desert area. Also, while the visual memory results may not have been high compared to the visual memory results of Whites, they may have been high compared to low measured average IQ of Australian Aborigines.[8]

External links

Article archives

References

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