Odessa is a city in Ukraine.
The origin of the name, or the reasons for naming the town Odessa, are not known. A legend regarding a link with the name of the ancient Greek colony persists, so there might be some truth in the oral tradition. The Turkish name for the district was Yedisan, meaning "seven flags", and this is a more likely explanation of the name Odessa.
There is opinion that the city was named "Odessa" as a result of an error. It was considered to be named "Odessa" after the ancient Greek city of Odessos (or Odissos), which was believed (by mistake) to have been founded in the area of Odessa. In fact Greek colony Odessos was not here but somewhere near the present day town of Varna in Bulgaria. 
From the first settlements to the end of the 19th century
It is said that the site of Odessa was an ancient Greek colony because of archaeological artifacts found in the Odessa area and their links with the eastern Mediterranean. However many Mediterranean and other important trading stations can also claim these 'links' although they were not necessarily Greek colonies.
In the Middle Ages successive rulers of the Odessa region included various nomadic tribes (Petchenegs, Cumans), the Golden Horde, the Crimean Khanate, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and the Ottoman Empire. Crimean Tatars traded there in the 14th century.
During the reign of Khan Hacı I Giray of Crimea (1441–1466), the Khanate was endangered by the Golden Horde and the Ottoman Empire and, in search of allies, the khan agreed to cede the area to Lithuania. The site of present-day Odessa was then a town known as Khadjibey (named for Hacı I Giray, and also spelled Kocibey in English, Hacıbey or Hocabey in Turkish, and Hacıbey in the Crimean Tatar language). It was part of the Dykra region. However, most of the rest of the area remained largely uninhabited in this period.
Khadjibey came under direct control of the Ottoman Empire after 1529 as part of a region known as Yedisan, and was administered as part of the Ottoman Silistra (Özi) Province. In the mid-18th century, the Ottomans rebuilt the fortress at Khadjibey (also known Hocabey), which was named Yeni Dünya. Hocabey was a sanjak centre of the Silistre Province.
During the Russo-Turkish War of 1787–1792, on 25 September 1789 a detachment of Russian forces under Ivan Gudovich took Khadjibey and Yeni Dünya for the Russian Empire. Some of the troops were under the command of a Spaniard in the Russian service, Major-General José de Ribas (known in Russia as Osip Mikhailovich Deribas), and the main street in Odessa today, Derybasivska Street, is named after him. Russia formally gained possession of the area as a result of the Treaty of Jassy (Iaşi) in 1792.
The modern city of Odessa was founded by order of Catherine the Great, the Russian Empress, centred on the site of the Turkish fortress of Khadzhibei, which was occupied by Russian Army in 1789. De Ribas and Franz de Volan recommended the area of this fortress as the site for the region's port: it had an ice-free harbor, breakwaters could be cheaply constructed and would render the harbor safe and it would have the capacity to accommodate large fleets. The Governor General of Novorossiya (New Russia), Platon Zubov (one of Catherine's favorites), supported this proposal, and in 1794 Catherine approved the new port-city and invested the first money for its construction.
However, adjacent to the new official locality, a Moldavian colony already existed, which by the end of 18th century was an independent settlement known under the name of Moldavanka. Some local historians consider that the settlement pre-dates Odessa by about thirty years and assert that the locality was founded by Moldavians who came to build the fortress of Yeni Dunia for the Ottomans and eventually settled in the area in the late 1760s, right next to the settlement of Khadjibey (since 1795 Odessa proper), on what later became the Prymorsky Boulevard. Another version posits that the settlement appeared after Odessa itself was founded, as a settlement of Moldavians, Greeks and Albanians fleeing the Ottoman yoke.
In their settlement, also known as Novaia Slobodka, the Moldavians owned relatively small plots on which they built village-style houses and cultivated vineyards and gardens. What became Mykhailovsky Square was the centre of this settlement and the site of its first Orthodox church, the Church of the Dormition, built in 1821 close to the seashore, as well as of a cemetery. Nearby stood the military barracks and the country houses (dacha) of the city's wealthy residents, including that of the Duc de Richelieu, appointed by Tsar Alexander I as Governor of Odessa in 1803.
In the period from 1795 to 1814 the population of Odessa increased 15 times over and reached almost 20 thousand people. The first city plan was designed by the engineer F. Devollan in the late 18th century. Colonists of various ethnicities settled mainly in the area of the former colony, outside of the official boundaries, and as a consequence, in the first third of the 19th century, Moldavanka emerged as the dominant settlement. After planning by the official architects who designed buildings in Odessa's central district, such as the Italians Franz Karlowicz Boffo and Giovanni Torichelli, Moldovanka was included in the general city plan, though the original grid-like plan of Moldovankan streets, lanes and squares remained unchanged.
The new city quickly became a major success. Its early growth owed much to the work of the Duc de Richelieu, who served as the city's governor between 1803 and 1814. Having fled the French Revolution, he had served in Catherine's army against the Turks. He is credited with designing the city and organizing its amenities and infrastructure, and is considered[by whom?] one of the founding fathers of Odessa, together with another Frenchman, Count Andrault de Langeron, who succeeded him in office. Richelieu is commemorated by a bronze statue, unveiled in 1828 to a design by Ivan Martos. His contributions to the city are mentioned by Mark Twain in his travelogue Innocents Abroad: "I mention this statue and this stairway because they have their story. Richelieu founded Odessa - watched over it with paternal care - labored with a fertile brain and a wise understanding for its best interests - spent his fortune freely to the same end - endowed it with a sound prosperity, and one which will yet make it one of the great cities of the Old World".
In 1819 the city became a free port, a status it retained until 1859. It became home to an extremely diverse population of Albanians, Armenians, Azeris, Bulgarians, Crimean Tatars, Frenchmen, Germans (including Mennonites), Greeks, Italians, Jews, Poles, Romanians, Russians, Turks, Ukrainians, and traders representing many other nationalities (hence numerous "ethnic" names on the city's map, for example Frantsuzky (French) and Italiansky (Italian) Boulevards, Gretcheskaya (Greek), Yevreyskaya (Jewish), Arnautskaya (Albanian) Streets). Its cosmopolitan nature was documented by the great Russian poet Alexander Pushkin, who lived in internal exile in Odessa between 1823 and 1824. In his letters he wrote that Odessa was a city where "the air is filled with all Europe, French is spoken and there are European papers and magazines to read".
Odessa's growth was interrupted by the Crimean War of 1853–1856, during which it was bombarded by British and French naval forces. It soon recovered and the growth in trade made Odessa Russia's largest grain-exporting port. In 1866 the city was linked by rail with Kiev and Kharkiv as well as with Iaşi in Romania.
The city became the home of a large Jewish community during the 19th century, and by 1897 Jews were estimated to comprise some 37% of the population. They were, however, repeatedly subjected to severe persecution. Pogroms were carried out in 1821, 1859, 1871, 1881 and 1905. Many Odessan Jews fled abroad, particularly to Palestine after 1882, and the city became an important base of support for Zionism.
First half of the 20th century
In 1905 Odessa was the site of a Bolshevik revolt supported by the crew of the Russian battleship Potemkin (also see Battleship Potemkin uprising) and Lenin's Iskra. The Jewish film-maker Sergei Eisenstein's infamous motion picture The Battleship Potemkin commemorated the uprising and included a scene where hundreds of Odessa citizens were murdered on the great stone staircase (now popularly known as the "Potemkin Steps"), in one of the most notorious scenes in motion picture history. At the top of the steps, which lead down to the port, stands a statue of the Duc de Richelieu. The actual massacre took place in streets nearby, not on the steps themselves, but the film caused many to visit Odessa to see the site of the "slaughter". The "Odessa Steps" continue to be a tourist attraction in Odessa. The film was made at Odessa's Cinema Factory, one of the oldest cinema studios in the former Soviet Union.
Following the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917 during World War I, Odessa was occupied by several groups, including the Ukrainian Tsentral'na Rada, the French Army, the Red Army and the White Army. In 1918 Odessa temporarily became the capital of the independent Odessa Soviet Republic. The following year the British Consul reported that while "the population of Odessa were glad to see the end of Bolshevik rule last August" (1919), the "working class were becoming discontented because employers had withdrawn concessions and privileges forced on them by the Bolsheviks. Jews, who form the whole commercial community and 70 per cent of the population, are uneasy."
However, the Bolsheviks were relentlessly driving back the disorganised White Armies and it was reported on December 28th 1919 "that the continued advance of the Red Army, which has now reached Jmerinka, is causing serious panic in Odessa and there is a great lack of confidence in the Volunteer Army" being able to resist them. The British Consul and the Captain of H.M.S.Ceres, which was in the port, were "assuring Russians that in the case of necessity the British would provide transport to take away all those compromised with the Bolsheviks."
Early in 1920 the Red Army took control of the city and united it with the Ukrainian SSR, which later became part of the USSR. The people of Odessa barely suffered from the famine that occurred as a result of the Civil War in Russia in 1921–1922. Before being occupied by Romanian troops in 1941, a part of the city's population, industry, infrastructure and all cultural valuables possible were evacuated to inner regions of the USSR, and the retreating Red Army units destroyed as much as they could of Odessa harbour facilities left behind. The city was land mined in the same way as Kiev.
Also during the war, the city suffered severe damage and had many casualties. Many parts of Odessa were damaged during both its siege and recapture on 10 April 1944, when the city was finally annexed by the Red Army. It was one of the first four Soviet cities to be awarded the title of "Hero City" in 1945, though some of the Odessans had a more favourable view of the Romanian occupation, in contrast with the Soviet official view that the period was exclusively a time of hardship, deprivation, oppression and suffering – claims embodied in public monuments and disseminated through the media to this day. Subsequent Soviet policies imprisoned and executed numerous Odessans (and deported most of the German and Tatar population) on account of collaboration with the occupiers.
Following the Siege of Odessa, and the Romanian and German occupations, it has been alleged that approximately 25,000 Odessans were murdered in the outskirts of the city and over 35,000 deported. Most of the atrocities were committed during the first six months of the occupation which officially began on 17 October 1941, when allegedly 80% of the 210,000 Jews in the region were killed. After the German forces began to lose ground on the Eastern Front, the Romanian administration changed its policy, refusing to deport the remaining Jewish population to concentration camps and allowing Jews to work as hired labourers. As a result the survival of the Jews in this area is said to be higher than in other areas of occupied eastern Europe.
Second half of the 20th century
During the 1960s and 1970s the city grew tremendously. Nevertheless, the majority of Odessa's Jews emigrated to Israel, the United States and other Western countries between the 1970s and 1990s. Many ended up in the Brooklyn neighborhood of Brighton Beach, sometimes known as "Little Odessa". Domestic migration of Odessan middle and upper classes to Moscow and Leningrad that offered even greater opportunities for career advancement, also occurred on a large scale. But the city grew rapidly by filling the void with new rural migrants elsewhere from Ukraine and industrial professionals invited from all over the Soviet Union.
As a part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, the city preserved and somewhat reinforced its unique cosmopolitan mix of Russian/Ukrainian/Jewish culture and a predominantly Russophone environment with the uniquely accented dialect of Russian spoken in the city. The city's Russian, Ukrainian, Jewish, French, Italian, Romanian, Tatar, Turkish, Greek, Armenian and Bulgarian communities have influenced different aspects of Odessa life.
In 1991, after the collapse of Communism, the city became part of newly independent Ukraine. Today Odessa is a city of more than 1 million people. The city's industries include shipbuilding, oil refining, chemicals, metalworking and food processing. Odessa is also a Ukrainian naval base and home to a fishing fleet. It is also known for its huge outdoor market, the Seventh-Kilometer Market, the largest market of its kind in Europe.
- ↑ http://www.odessaapartments.dompavlov.com/content/odessa-ukraine/
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Richardson, p. 110.
- ↑ Cite error: Invalid
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- ↑ Clive Pointing, The Crimean War: The Truth Behind the Myth, Chatto & Windus, London, 2004, ISBN 0-7011-7390-4.
- ↑ Woodward, Professor E.L., MA.,FBA., and Butler, Rohan, M.A., Documents on British Foreign Policy 1919-1939, First Series, vol. iii, 1919, London, 1949, p.626.
- ↑ Woodward & Butler, vol. iii, 1919, 1949, p.744.
- ↑ Nataliya and Yuri Kruglyak, KRT Web Studio at www.webservicestudio..com , Odessa, Ukraine. Odessa population during WWII. Odessitclub.org. Retrieved on 28 October 2011.
- ↑ Richardson, p. 103.
- ↑ Richardson, p. 17.
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 Richardson, p. 33.