Newspaper

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Front page of The New York Times on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918.
Composing room of the New York Herald with linotype machines, 1902.

A newspaper is a publication containing news, information, and advertising. General-interest newspapers often feature articles on political events, crime, business, art/entertainment, society and sports. Most traditional papers also feature an editorial page containing columns that express the personal opinions of writers. Supplementary sections may contain advertising, comics, and coupons.

A wide variety of material has been published in newspapers, including editorial opinions, criticism, persuasion and op-eds; obituaries; entertainment features such as crosswords, sudoku and horoscopes; weather news and forecasts; advice, gossip, food and other columns; critical reviews of movies, plays and restaurants; classified ads; display ads, editorial cartoons and comic strips.

Contents

History

Before movable type

In Ancient Rome, Acta Diurna, or government announcement bulletins, were made public by Julius Caesar. They were carved in metal or stone and posted in public places.

In China, early government-produced news sheets, called tipao, circulated among court officials during the late Han dynasty (second and third centuries AD). Between 713 and 734, the Kaiyuan Za Bao ("Bulletin of the Court") of the Chinese Tang Dynasty published government news; it was handwritten on silk and read by government officials. In 1582 there was the first reference to privately published newssheets in Beijing, during the late Ming Dynasty;[1]

In 1556, the government of Venice first published the monthly Notizie scritte, which cost one gazetta.[2] These avvisi were handwritten newsletters and used to convey political, military, and economic news quickly and efficiently throughout Europe, more specifically Italy, during the early modern era (1500-1700CE) — sharing some characteristics of newspapers though usually not considered true newspapers.[3]

Modern era

Newspapers printed with movable type date to the beginning of the 17th century.

Asia

By 1638 the Peking Gazette had switched from woodblock print to movable type.[1]

Europe

Johann Carolus' Relation aller Fürnemmen und gedenckwürdigen Historien, published in 1605 in Strasbourg, is often recognized as the first newspaper. Strasbourg was a free imperial city in the Holy Roman Empire; the first newspaper of modern Germany was the Avisa, published in 1609 in Augsburg.

The Dutch Courante uyt Italien, Duytslandt, &c. of 1618 was the first to appear in folio- rather than quarto-size. Amsterdam, a center of world trade, quickly became home to newspapers in many languages, often before they were published in their own country.[4]

The first English-language newspaper, Corrant out of Italy, Germany, etc., was published in Amsterdam in 1620. A year and a half later, Corante, or weekely newes from Italy, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Bohemia, France and the Low Countreys. was published in England by an "N.B." (generally thought to be either Nathaniel Butter or Nicholas Bourne) and Thomas Archer.[5]

The first newspaper in France was published in 1631, La Gazette (originally published as Gazette de France).[2]

Post- och Inrikes Tidningar (founded as Ordinari Post Tijdender) was first published in Sweden in 1645, and is the oldest newspaper still in existence, though it now publishes solely online.[6]

Opregte Haarlemsche Courant from Haarlem, first published in 1656, is the oldest paper still printed. It was forced to merge with the newspaper Haarlems Dagblad in 1942 when Germany occupied the Netherlands. Since then the Haarlems Dagblad appears with the subtitle Oprechte Haerlemse Courant 1656 and considers itself to be the oldest newspaper still publishing.

The first successful English daily, The Daily Courant, was published from 1702 to 1735.[4][7]

Stamford Mercury first published in Stamford, England in 1695

North America

In Boston in 1690, Benjamin Harris published Publick Occurrences Both Forreign and Domestick. This is considered the first newspaper in the American colonies even though only one edition was published before the paper was suppressed by the government. In 1704, the governor allowed The Boston News-Letter to be published and it became the first continuously published newspaper in the colonies. Soon after, weekly papers began publishing in New York and Philadelphia. These early newspapers followed the British format and were usually four pages long. They mostly carried news from Britain and content depended on the editor’s interests. In 1783, the Pennsylvania Evening Post became the first American daily.

In 1751, John Bushell published the Halifax Gazette, the first Canadian newspaper.

Industrial Revolution

By the early 19th century, many cities in Europe, as well as North and South America, published newspaper-type publications though not all of them developed in the same way; content was vastly shaped by regional and cultural preferences.[8] Advances in printing technology related to the Industrial Revolution enabled newspapers to become an even more widely circulated means of communication. In 1814, The Times (London) acquired a printing press capable of making 1,100 impressions per minute.[9]

Soon, it was adapted to print on both sides of a page at once. This innovation made newspapers cheaper and thus available to a larger part of the population. In 1830, the first penny press newspaper came to the market: Lynde M. Walter's Boston Transcript.[10] Penny press papers cost about one sixth the price of other newspapers and appealed to a wider audience.[11]

Jewish controlled newspapers

Within the last century Jews have made an effort to buy or control newspapers within the community. Some have been local and at times others have been major papers of record, for example: The New York Times. Jewish control occurs when a paper is owned by Jews or when major positions such as the publisher or editor are Jewish.

In some cases there may not exist any outright Jewish ownership or major presence of Jews on a paper, but the paper can still be consider Jewish controlled. For example, if a non-Jewish owner wishes to placate or appease the Jews with favorable editorials or slanted news then the paper can still be considered Jewish controlled. A non-jewish owner may take this position to gain or keep advertising to the paper or prevent a take-over of the paper by Jewish competition.

See also

Part of this article consists of modified text from Wikipedia, and the article is therefore licensed under GFDL.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Brook, Timothy. (1998). The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22154-0 (Paperback). Page xxi.
  2. 2.0 2.1 A Newspaper Timeline, World Association of Newspapers
  3. Infelise, Mario. "Roman Avvisi: Information and Politics in the Seventeenth Century." Court and Politics in Papal Rome, 1492-1700. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. 212,214,216-217.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Stephens, Mitchell, "History of Newspapers," Collier's Encyclopedia
  5. Concise History of the British Newspaper in the Seventeenth Century
  6. Oldest newspapers still in circulation, World Association of Newspapers
  7. Concise History of the British Newspaper in the Eighteenth Century
  8. newspaper - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  9. Meggs, Philip B. A History of Graphic Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1998. (pp 130–133)
  10. David R. Spencer, The Yellow Journalism (Northwestern University Press, 2007, ISBN 0810123312), p. 22.
  11. Bird, S. Elizabeth. For Enquiring Minds: A Cultural Study of Supermarket Tabloids. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1992: 12-17.
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