Pan-European nationalism is an ambiguous concept that exists in both more politically correct and less politically correct forms.
In a less politically correct form it is based on ethnic/racial nationalism such as White nationalism.
Some of the 19th-century nationalists were supporters of a form of European unity. The Italian nationalist Giuseppe Mazzini, the founder of Young Italy and an inspiration for Young Ireland, also founded an association called Young Europe in 1834. (Mazzini sought no European state: he saw Europe as inherently composed of nations). The International Paneuropean Union or 'Paneuropean Movement' was founded in 1923 by the freemason Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi. It survived the Second World War, and had some influence on the formation of the European Economic Community.
After the war, the Swede Per Engdahl created a European Social Movement (with the same name as a small French collaborationist party, founded in 1942 by Pierre Costantini) alongside Maurice Bardèche. A more extremist splinter group, the New European Order, would also emerge under Switzerland's Gaston Armand Amaudruz
Shortly afterwards Francis Parker Yockey, an American, created the European Liberation Front which promoted the Idea of Europe as State expressed in his monumental work Imperium. The European Popular Movement was created at the end of 1950s by Otto Strasser.
In 1960, parallel to the foundation of Jeune Europe by Jean Thiriart, the latter, with Otto Strasser and Oswald Mosley, briefly created the National Party of Europe. Mosley promoted European Nationalism with his Europe a Nation campaign, and through his (British) Union Movement. Jeune Europe disappeared in 1969. It was succeeded by several pan-European movements of less importance, such as Comité de liaison des européens révolutionnaires and the European Liberation Front (the second organisation with this name).
In France, pan-European nationalism is represented by the Bloc Identitaire. Another French organisation is the Réseau Radical. In Belgium the principal European-nationalist organisation is the group Synergies européennes led by the college lecturer Robert Steuckers. It is considered part of the New Right.
A closely connected idea to National Pan-Europeanism is the idea of Eurosiberia (sometimes called Eurasianism): that is to say, Europe as traditionally understood, but also including the post-Soviet Russia. These ideas began to be formed while the Soviet Empire still existed and is based primarily on the idea that the United States is the greatest threat to Europe and that the Russian spirit is the only one still capable of overcoming liberalism and freeing Europe in the process. Within the old National Party of Europe during the 1960s, Jean Thiriart would go on to found the Parti Communautaire Européen holding this view, as well as with his later group Parti Communautaire National-Européen. With the rise of Vladimir Putin in Russia, it is not only National Bolsheviks who hold this view, but parts of the New Right, such as Guillaume Faye.
- National Party of Europe by Friends of Oswald Mosley
- Europe a Nation Policy by Friends of Oswald Mosley
- Spiritual and Structural Presuppositions of the European Union by Julius Evola