Miscegenation is a term referring to sexual relations and related aspects such as marriage and offspring between individuals of different races. Popularly known as "race mixing". Contemporary usage of the term "miscegenation" is less frequent than it once was, and the term is sometimes considered offensive by the politically correct establishment.
Miscegenation: The Theory of the Blending of the Races, Applied to the American White Man and Negro was the name of a propaganda pamphlet printed in New York City in December of 1863, and the first known instance of the word's use. The pamphlet purported to be in favor of promoting the intermarriage of whites and blacks until they were indistinguishably mixed, claiming this was the goal of the Republican Party. The pamphlet was revealed to be written by anti-Lincoln Northern Democrats ("Copperheads") to discredit the Republicans, the Lincoln administration, and the abolitionist movement. Some radical elements of the abolitionist movement did in fact did support the goals of the pamphlet, but it was largely because miscegenation was so repulsive to the common man that this propaganda was effective.
Racial status of mixed race persons/populations
- See: Race: Mixed groups
Effects of race mixing
- Main article: Effects of race mixing
Today the politically correct media in Western countries give overwhelmingly positive descriptions of miscegenation and typically never mention the negative effects of race mixing described above.
Opposition in Israel
Anti-Miscegenation Laws in the United States
In North America, laws against interracial marriage and interracial sex were enforced in the Thirteen Colonies from the late seventeenth century onwards, and subsequently in many U.S. states and territories until 1967, when Loving v. Virginia overturned the laws. Catholics played a part in overturning these laws.
Anti-Miscegenation Laws Repealed By 1887
|State||First law passed||Law repealed||Races banned from marrying Whites||Note|
|Kansas||1855||1859||Blacks||Law repealed before reaching statehood|
|New Mexico||1857||1866||Blacks||Law repealed before reaching statehood|
|Maine||1821||1883||Blacks, Native Americans|
|Massachusetts||1705||1843||Blacks, Native Americans||Passed the 1913 law preventing out-of-state couples from circumventing their home-state anti-miscegenation laws|
|Ohio||1861||1887||Blacks||Last state to repeal its anti-miscegenation law before California did so in 1948|
|Washington||1855||1868||Blacks, Native Americans||Law repealed before reaching statehood|
Anti-Miscegenation Laws Repealed 1948-1967
|State||First law passed||Law repealed||Races banned from marrying Whites||Note|
|Arizona||1865||1962||Blacks, Asians, Filipinos, Indians||Filipinos ("Malays") and Indians ("Hindus") added to list of "races" in 1931|
|California||1850||1948||Blacks, Asians, Filipinos||Anti-miscegenation law overturned by state judiciary in Supreme Court of California case Perez v. Sharp|
|Idaho||1864||1959||Blacks, Native Americans, Asians|
|Maryland||1692||1967||Blacks, Filipinos||Repealed its law in response to the start of the Loving v. Virginia case|
|Nevada||1861||1959||Blacks, Native Americans, Asians, Filipinos|
|Oregon||1862||1951||Blacks, Native Americans, Asians, Native Hawaiians|
|South Dakota||1909||1957||Blacks, Asians, Filipinos|
|Utah||1852||1963||Blacks, Asians, Filipinos|
|Wyoming||1913||1965||Blacks, Asians, Filipinos|
Anti-Miscegenation Laws Overturned by Federal mandate on 12 June 1967 by Loving v. Virginia
|State||First law passed||"Races" banned from marrying whites||Note|
|Alabama||1822||Blacks||Repealed during Reconstruction, law later reinstated|
|Arkansas||1838||Blacks||Repealed during Reconstruction, law later reinstated|
|Florida||1832||Blacks||Repealed during Reconstruction, law later reinstated|
|Louisiana||1724||Blacks||Repealed during Reconstruction, law later reinstated|
|Mississippi||1822||Blacks, Asians||Repealed during Reconstruction, law later reinstated|
|North Carolina||1715||Blacks, Native Americans|
|South Carolina||1717||All non-whites||Repealed during Reconstruction, law later reinstated|
|Tennessee||1741||Blacks, Native Americans|
|Virginia||1691||All non-whites||Previous anti-miscegenation law made more severe by Racial Integrity Act of 1924|
Proposed Anti-Miscegenation Amendments to the U.S. Constitution
At least three proposed Constitutional amendments to bar interracial marriage have been introduced before the U.S. Congress.
- In 1871, Representative Andrew King, a Democrat of Missouri, was the first politician to propose banning interracial marriage nation-wide. King proposed this amendment because he feared that the Fourteenth Amendment, ratified in 1868 to give ex-slaves citizenship (the Freedmen) as part of the process of Reconstruction, would someday render laws against interracial marriage "unconstitutional". He was correct, as the case of Loving v. Virginia in 1967 demonstrated.
- In December 1912 and January 1913, Representative Seaborn Roddenbery, a Democrat of Georgia, again introduced a proposal in the House of Representatives to insert a prohibition of miscegenation into the US Constitution. According to the wording of the proposed amendment, "Intermarriage between Negroes or persons of color and Caucasians... within the United States... is forever prohibited." Roddenbery's proposal was more severe because it defined the racial boundary between whites and "persons of color" by applying the one-drop rule. In his proposed amendment, anyone with "any trace of African or Negro blood" was banned from marrying a white spouse.
- Roddenbery's proposed amendment was a direct reaction to black boxer Jack Johnson's marriages to white women, first to Etta Duryea and then to Lucille Cameron. In 1908, Johnson had become the first black boxing world champion, having beaten Tommy Burns. Johnson's marriages to and affairs with white women infuriated white Americans. In his speech introducing his bill before the United States Congress, Roddenbery compared the marriage of Johnson and Cameron to the enslavement of white women, and warned of future civil war that would ensue if interracial marriage was not made illegal nationwide:
"No brutality, no infamy, no degradation in all the years of southern slavery, possessed such villainous character and such atrocious qualities as the provision of the laws of Illinois, Massachusetts, and other states which allow the marriage of the Negro, Jack Johnson, to a woman of Caucasian strain. [Applause]. Gentleman, I offer this resolution ... that the States of the Union may have an opportunity to ratify it. ... Intermarriage between whites and blacks is repulsive and averse to every sentiment of pure American spirit. It is abhorrent and repugnant to the very principles of Saxon government. It is subversive of social peace. It is destructive of moral supremacy, and ultimately this slavery of white women to black beasts will bring this nation a conflict as fatal as ever reddened the soil of Virginia or crimsoned the mountain paths of Pennsylvania. ... Let us uproot and exterminate now this debasing, ultra-demoralizing, un-American and inhuman leprosy"Congressional Record, 62d. Congr., 3d. Sess., December 11, 1912, pp. 502–503.
- Roddenbery's proposal of the anti-miscegenation amendment unleashed a wave of racialist support for the move: 19 states that lacked such laws proposed their enactment. However, Wyoming in 1913 was the only state lacking such a law that enacted one. Also in 1913, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, which had abolished its anti-miscegenation law in 1843, enacted a measure (not repealed until 2008) that prevented couples who could not marry in their home state from marrying in Massachusetts.
- In 1928, Senator Coleman Blease, a Democrat of South Carolina, proposed an amendment that went beyond the previous ones, requiring that Congress set a punishment for interracial couples attempting to get married and for people officiating an interracial marriage. This amendment was also never enacted.
- Chapter 29 - Miscegenation Erectus Walks Amongst Us
- American Eugenic Laws Against Race Mixing
- “I began writing for kids because I wanted to effect a change in American society…” at Destroy Zionism
- Erasing the Line at Counter-Currents Publishing
- White Man Was Beaten Savagely by Group of Blacks for Dating African-American
- Breeding Out the Black Blood -- Why it is impossible.
- ↑ Miscegenation. Etymology online. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=miscegenation
- ↑ Galanter JM, Fernandez-Lopez JC, Gignoux CR, Barnholtz-Sloan J, Fernandez-Rozadilla C, et al. (2012) Development of a Panel of Genome-Wide Ancestry Informative Markers to Study Admixture Throughout the Americas. PLoS Genet 8(3): e1002554. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002554 http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pgen.1002554
- ↑ Catholics Lead Effort to Overturn Bans on Interracial Marriage
- ↑ John R. Vile (2003), Encyclopedia of constitutional amendments, proposed amendments, and amending issues, 1789-2002 (second ed.), ABC-CLIO, p. 243, ISBN 9781851094288, http://books.google.com/?id=T0IGUhxqUuYC
- ↑ "Governor signs law allowing out-of-state gays to wed". The Boston Globe. 2008-07-31. http://www.boston.com/news/local/breaking_news/2008/07/gov_to_sign_bil.html?p1=Well_MostPop_Emailed7. Retrieved 2009-09-11.
- ↑ "Big marriage rulings are coming in the next month". Gay People's Chronicle. 2006-02-17. http://www.gaypeopleschronicle.com/stories06/february/0217063.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-11.
- ↑ Anti-Miscagenation laws, Reference.com, http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Anti-miscegenation_laws