Homosexuality

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Homosexuality refers to sexuality directed at individuals of the same sex.

Contents

Terminology

Etymology

The word homosexual comes from Greek homos "same" + Latin sexual. The word is argued to have been created by Karl-Maria Kertbeny in an anonymous pamphlet published in Germany in 1869. It and rival terminology were created as replacements for earlier derogatory words. The word appeared in English in 1892 in a translation of a German work. In 1897 Havelock Ellis stated that it is a "barbarously hybrid word, and I claim no responsibility for it. It is, however, convenient, and now widely used." [1][2]

Other terms

Gay, faggot, fag, pansy, and so on, are some examples of words used to refer to male homosexuality. They are or were earlier often considered derogatory but in some cases homosexuals have adopted such words and changed the meaning to be more positive. Etymologically many such words refer to an argued effeminacy.

The seemingly neutral word "lesbian" for female homosexuals has been seen as derogatory by inhabitants of the island Greek Lesbos from which the word derives and who have campaigned against its use.[3]

LGBT refers lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender. An alternative term for LGBT, or even broader, is queer, supposedly today without its original derogatory implications.

"Men who have sex with men" (MSM) is term often used in HIV research to describe a group of men that may not necessarily consider themselves to be homosexuals but that have sex with men (this include groups such as male prostitutes).

GLAAD bans

At the end of 2014 the homosexual media lobby organization GLAAD issued a "GLAAD Media Reference Guide - Terms To Avoid". It proclaimed the term "homosexual" to be "offensive" "Because of the clinical history of the word "homosexual," it is aggressively used by anti-gay extremists to suggest that gay people are somehow diseased or psychologically/emotionally disordered". GLAAD proclaimed that "gay"/"lesbian" should be used instead.[4]

GLAAD also banned "sexual preference" as "offensive" since it "suggest that being lesbian, gay or bisexual is a choice" and proclaimed that "sexual orientation" should be used instead.[4]

Any reference to a "gay agenda" was banned completely. Instead, only detailed descriptions of advocacy regarding specific issues are allowed. Any reference to "special rights" for homosexuals was also banned completely. Instead, only references to "equal rights" are allowed. Any mention of an association between homosexuality and pedophilia was also banned completely "except in direct quotes that clearly reveal the bias of the person quoted".[4]

Prevalence

Non-human species

Some forms of homosexual behavior have been observed in some animal species but exclusive or predominant homosexuality is rare in nature. The basic biological design of all species is heterosexual reproduction.[5] In some cases such behaviors are due to a lack of available opposite sex partners. It has even been argued that there are no clear examples of exclusive homosexuality in non-human wild animal species if there are available partners of the opposite sex.[6][7]

Endocrine disruptors affecting behaviors are possible causes of homosexual behaviors in animals and humans. Thus, homosexual behaviors in some animals that have been observed today are not necessarily typical and may not have occurred in earlier times with less environmental pollutants.

Hunter-gatherers

There are very few descriptions of homosexual behavior in traditional societies such as hunter-gatherer societies. These are the ones most similar to the societies in which humans spent almost all of their evolutionary history. The only exception are some related tribes on Papua New Guinea. This consist of apparently highly ritualized and culturally obligatory initiation rites for boys. As such, there is very little individual choice in participating. Depictions of sexual behavior are not uncommon in prehistoric art such as cave paintings but depictions of homosexual behaviors are nonexistent or possibly rare if generously interpreting two unclear cave paintings as homosexual. This is in contrast with ethnographers having been able to document many not culturally approved behaviors such as murder, theft, infanticide and extramarital affairs.[5]

Other non-modern, non-Western societies

The prevalence of homosexuality as well as the practices/customs involving homosexuality have been argued to have varied widely in different societies and to have sometimes changed quickly within societies as culture has changed.[8]

Modern Western societies

The prevalence of homosexuality according to surveys is affected by the question(s) used by the surveys. This includes if asking for exclusive homosexuality, if asking for bisexual actions, or if asking for sometimes having felt an attraction towards persons from the opposite sex. The stated prevalence is also affected by possible time limits such as "…in the past year."

Recent, high quality surveys have been stated to have reported a prevalence of more enduring homosexuality in approximately 2–4% of the population of Western countries. Sometimes higher numbers such as 10% are mentioned but they have been criticized as not being based on representative samples. Exclusive homosexuality has been stated to be more common among men while bisexuality has been stated to more common among women.[9][10]

The largest survey ever done was made in the U.S. in 2012 and stated that 3.4% of adults self-identified as LGBT. For Whites the figure was 3.2%, for Hispanics 4.0%, for Asians 4.3%, and for Blacks 4.6%. For men the figure was 3.3% and for women 3.6%. The prevalence was higher for persons with low income and short education. LGBT women were as likely as non-LGBT women to have children under the age of 18 in their home while LGBT men were half as likely as non-LGBT men to have children in their home. There was a large age diffference. Persons aged 18 to 29 were more than three times as likely as seniors aged 65 and older to identify as LGBT (6.4% vs 1.9%). Also, in the 18 to 29 age group the sex difference was particularly large. 8.3% of women and 4.6% of men self-identified as LGBT.[11]

A 2011 survey stated that studies in other Western countries have generally found lower self-identification than in the US (1.2-2.1%).[10] A 2012 study in the UK stated a self-identification prevalence of 1.5%. As in the US, the prevalence was much higher among younger persons. The prevalence for persons aged 16 to 24 was 2.6% and the prevalence for persons aged 65+ was 0.4%.[12]

A politically correct interpretation of the age differences is that these simply reflect that younger persons feel comfortable admitting their homosexuality and that the real prevalence has not changed. Another explanation is increased prevalence of endocrine disruptors which in particular affect the developing brain. Still another interpretation is that these increases are due to factors such as increasing pro-homosexual propaganda which are causing more people to become homosexual. This propaganda may be particularly pervasive and influential in the US and in particular among young women who may be more conformist than men.

There is a much higher occurrence of homosexuality among those who have been raised in large cities, rather than in rural areas.[8][13] The explanations could be similar to those proposed for the age differences.

Public perceptions of the prevalence of homosexuality

Homosexual activists have been accused of often deliberately citing misleading numbers regarding the prevalence of homosexuality (such as 10%) in order to gain more political influence. There has also been a greatly expanded presence of homosexuals in the mass media. Such propagande may explain why surveys in the US have found that the general public greatly overestimates the prevalence of homosexuality and that these overestimates have become increasingly larger over time.[14][15]

Furthermore, the media has been stated to stereotypically and incorrectly describe homosexuals as high income, highly educated, and White. The previously mentioned very large US study found the opposite of this media stereotype.[11]

Causes of homosexuality

Numerous causes of homosexuality have been proposed and debated. This section does not intend to list all of them but to mention some less politically correct arguments often not mentioned in politically correct lists.

Hard-wired or not

Homosexual activists have often argued that homosexuality is unavoidably hard-wired, cannot be changed, and that pro-homosexual propaganda that may increase the number of homosexuals actually only affects those who repress their homosexuality. Furthermore, if homosexuality is unavoidably hard-wired, then homosexuality will not become more common if homosexuals raise children or work with children.

Such hard-wiring could be caused both by genetic factors and by environmental factors. For example, external factors affecting the level of sex hormones during pregnancy could cause irreversible effects on the developing brain.

However, there are also several other possible explanations for homosexuality as described in this section.

A large 2016 review study concluded that "The understanding of sexual orientation as an innate, biologically fixed property of human beings — the idea that people are “born that way” — is not supported by scientific evidence."[16]

Heritability

"Heritability" refers to the proportion of the variation of a trait in a studied group that is due to genetic factors. It can be estimated by using for example twin studies. Heritability refers to the situation at the time of the study for the particular group studied and the number may change if the balance between environmental and genetic factors changes. For example, if the environment would become more similar for all members of the group, then the genetic factors would become relatively more important regarding differences and the heritability number would increase.

Studies of the heritability of homosexuality have given varying results which may be due to large methodological differences between the studies. Many studies have been argued to have used problematic self-selected, opportunistic, or small population-based samples. A 2010 study in Sweden (regarding the years 2005-2006) stated that it was the largest study done and truly population based. It found a heritability of 34%-39% for men and 18%-19% for women.[17] Sweden has a very homogenous environment regarding homosexuality which may cause the heritability figures to be higher than in other places.

As a comparison, these heritability figures are equal to or lower than the heritability of many political attitudes.[18] Political attitudes are generally considered to be quite changeable and many political organizations attempt to do so.

Others have argued for even lower heritability numbers and in particular for adolescents.[8]

Changes in sexual identity for homosexuals

Critics of hard-wiring have argued that about half of those with exclusive homosexuality move towards heterosexuality over a lifetime. Put another way, 3% of the practising heterosexual population (both men and women) claim to have once been either bisexual or homosexual. These changes are not therapeutically induced, but happen “naturally” in life, some very quickly. Most changes in sexual orientation are towards exclusive heterosexuality. Numbers of people who have changed towards exclusive heterosexuality are greater than current numbers of bisexuals and exclusive homosexuals combined. In other words, “Ex-gays outnumber actual gays.”[8]

The changes in sexual identity are particularly large among adolescents.[8]

Fraternal birth order effect

The "fraternal birth order effect" refers to the observation that the more older brothers a man has, the greater the probability is that he will be homosexual. This is usually explained as mothers having a risk of becoming immunized to male-specific antigens with each male child. Maternal antibodies may then prevent normal brain development which may cause homosexuality.[19]

Sex hormones

See also: Endocrine disruptors

Changes in the levels of sex hormones in adults do not change sexual preferences and the sex hormone levels of adult homosexuals are similar to those of adult heterosexuals.[7][20]

However, a possible cause of homosexuality is differences regarding sex hormone levels during early development. Such differences may be caused by external factors that for example may cause stress which has effects on the hormone system. There are also external endocrine disruptors that have effects similar to those of sex hormones. Examples include drugs (like diethylstilbestrol), phytoestrogens that can be found in plants, and pollutants like DDT, PCB, and bisphenol A.[21][7][20][22][23]

Gender nonconformity

The argued single strongest predictor of later homosexual behavior is childhood "gender nonconformity". That is, phrased differently, effeminate behaviors for males and masculine behaviors for females. It has been argued that this is not just a reflection of biological factors but may have a role in causing homosexuality.[24][25]

This may imply that attempts to undermine the traditional gender roles during childhood may increase the prevalence of homosexuality.

There are some males who due to sexual differentiation disorders have been classified as and raised as females. Studies on the sexual preferences of such individuals have sometimes been cited as evidence regarding the influence of gender roles on sexual preferences. However, the results have been argued to be very difficult to interpret and have been interpreted as both support for and as evidence against the importance of gender roles.[20][7][8]

Dysfunctional family structure during childhood and adolescence

More dysfunctional family structures (divorced parents, absent father, maternal death, unstable relationship, etc) have been argued to be associated with later homosexuality.[8][13]

Maltreatment during childhood and adolescence

Homosexuality has been stated to be associated with sexual and other forms of psychological and physical maltreatment during childhood and adolescence. There are several possible explanations for this association:[26]

  • Already existing homosexual behaviors increase the risk of maltreatment.
  • Already existing gender nonconforming behaviors but not homosexual behaviors increase the risk of maltreatment.
  • Increased tendency to remember maltreatment or interpret events as maltreatment by homosexuals.
  • The maltreatment causes homosexuality.

For example a 2013 study argued that maltreatment is a cause of homosexuality.[26]

This could occur through several possible mechanisms:[26]

  • The maltreatment may cause loss of self-worth, feeling different from others, and stigmatization and the individual may therefore identify with stigmatized groups likes homosexuals.
  • The sexual abuse of boys may "teach" homosexuality or cause the boys to believe that they are homosexuals.
  • The sexual abuse of girls may cause them to be averse to sexual relationships with men.
  • The maltreatment and stress may cause hormonal and other biological changes.
  • The maltreatment may cause emotional numbing and therefore a preference for stronger stimuli, novelty-seeking, and risk-taking which has been associated with homosexuality.
  • The maltreatment may increase the risk of substance abuse which may contribute to homosexuality by disinhibition.
  • The maltreatment may cause depression, stress, anger and other negative moods which may cause an increase drive for intimacy and sex, including homosexual.
  • The maltreatment may increase the risk of borderline personality disorder which is associated with non-heterosexual orientation.
  • The maltreatment may cause individuals to leave their families and trade sex for housing, money and drugs. For males in particular, this may involve homosexual prostitution and cause homosexuality through one of the above mentioned mechanisms.

Absence of available sex partners of the opposite sex

As previously mentioned, in non-human species homosexuality may be caused by an absence of available sex partners of the opposite sex. Such an effect has been argued also for humans such as in prisons.

Several studies in China have proposed that a shortage of women (caused by factors such as large scale selective abortions in China) may contribute to male homosexuality.[27][28]

Evolutionary explanations

Homosexuality in itself, or at least exclusive homosexuality, would seem to imply reduced reproductive success for the homosexual as well as for the parents who spend resources on their homosexual child without getting a reproductive return.

Possible evolutionary explanations include that the genes contributing to exclusive homosexuality in some persons would instead increase the reproductive success in related persons who do not become exclusively homosexual. Various mechanisms for such an effect have been theorized such as the genes causing exclusive homosexuality in some males would increase fecundity/attractiveness in female or male relatives.

One evolutionary explanation is that homosexuals without children would instead direct their efforts towards the reproductive success of relatives. Research on this has been mixed with research in Western countries failing to find support for the theory although research in Samoa has found some support.[29]

Another evolutionary explanation that being bisexual would have some advantage over strict heterosexuality (although this requires an explanation for why not everyone is bisexual).

However, many of the evolutionary explanations seem to imply that homosexuality, or at least exclusive homosexuality, in itself is an evolutionarily undesirable side effect. Furthermore, genetic/evolutionary factors are not very important causes of homosexuality according to the above mentioned studies on heritability.

Similarities between homosexual men and heterosexual women

Aside from the sexual preference there are also some other similarities between homosexual men and heterosexual women. Note that the following discussion refer to average group differences and that there are individuals who differ greatly from the group averages.

A 2003 literature review stated that homosexual males on average in childhood had a strong tendency for gender nonconforming behaviors (which also as stated above has been proposed as a cause of homosexuality). Similarly to females, on average homosexual males entered puberty earlier than heterosexual males. On various tests of mental abilities they had on average scored similarly to females or intermediately. There was an increased preference for occupations traditionally preferred by females.[21]

On the other hand, the preference regarding the degree of sexual partner variation was more similar to that of heterosexual men than heterosexual women.[21]

Some brain structures differ between heterosexual men and heterosexual women. Homosexual men have in studies on average had similarities to heterosexual women regarding some of these brain structures but not regarding other.[21]

The brain research, in particular an influential 1993 study, has often been cited by homosexual activists as evidence for homosexuality being hard-wired and criticized by those objecting to homosexuality being hard-wired.[30] However, differences like those reported in some studies regarding certain brain structures are not necessarily due to genetics or proof of hard-wiring but could also be explained as due to environmental factors (including possibilities such as growth of certain brain areas in direct response to learned sexual behaviors). Also, even when there are group differences regarding average values, this does not necessarily mean that it is possible to identify sexual orientation by, for example, measuring the volume of certain brain structure. This since the individual variability may be large and overlapping between groups.[7][8]

Homosexuality as a disease

Homosexuality was earlier by official health organizations considered to be a disease/paraphilia/sexual perversion. Today homosexuality is no longer listed as a disease by official health organizations. In part this occurred after intense lobbying by homosexual organizations. Arguments against homosexuality being a disease have included that the absence of heterosexual sexuality/reproduction by groups such as Catholic priests is not considered to be a disease, that homosexuality can be found in many human societies and in other animal species, that homosexuality may have evolutionary/genetic causes, and that studies have shown that homosexuality is not necessarily accompanied by reduced function and well-being.

Critics have argued that at least part of the evidence cited when delisting homosexuality was flawed and misrepresented by the American Psychological Association when the organization has made pro-homosexual lobbying.[31][32]

Even homosexual activists admit that homosexuality is associated with increased risk of problems such as various mental health disorders and substance abuse. This raises the question if homosexuality should be seen as similar to medical conditions like hypertension that are not necessarily always accompanied by reduced function but that increases the risk of various health problems.

Homosexual activists often dismiss any negative association with homosexuality, for homosexuals themselves or for other persons, as completely being caused by factors such as stress caused by persecution. However, there are many other possibilities. One is that confusion regarding gender identity may be stressful in itself. Another is that homosexuality may contribute to a lifestyle that may increase the risk of health problems such as frequent visits to bars/clubs possibly increasing the risk of substance abuse. Still another is that if homosexuality is caused by some factor(s) affecting the brain regions involved in sexual behaviors, then these factors could possibly also affect other regions of the brain causing various, possibly negative, effects. More generally, whatever factors are causing homosexuality could also have other effects, including negative ones. In such a case homosexuality itself would not be the cause of the problems associated with homosexuality but neither would persecution by society. Instead, homosexuality could be a symptom of the presence of a more general developmental disorder.

Health

Physical health

Homosexuality is associated with a variety of medical issues.

Most well-known may be the association with HIV/AIDS. A 2012 study stated that the prevalence of HIV among "men who have sex with men" (MSM) was 25.4% in the Caribbean, 14.7% - 17.9% in Sub-Saharan Africa, North America, Latin America, and South and Southeast Asia, and 3% - 6.6% in the rest of the world. The HIV epidemics among MSM were stated be expanding in most countries.[33]

A high frequency of unprotected anal sex and many sexual partners have been stated to increase to risk of HIV-infection for MSM. "Barebacking" refers to unprotected anal sex and has been stated to be common among young MSM in the US despite a high risk for HIV-infection. Stated possible explanations include that HIV is no longer seen as a death sentence and that the behavior is seen as a form of defiance of norms and rules. In some areas an increased use of drugs similar to amphetamine have been associated with more risky behaviors and an increased frequency of HIV-infection.[33][34]

There are also "bug chasers" who want to become HIV-infected and "gift givers" who want to infect "bug chasers". Stated possible reasons include a desire to no longer be afraid of becoming HIV-infected, a feeling of exclusion from the group of HIV-infected that may include friends and partners, the behavior is seen as a supporting a stigmatized group, safe sex is seen as an obstacle to spontaneous sex, and risky sex is considered exciting.[35]

There is also an increased risk of several other sexual diseases. One example is hepatitis C that greatly increases the risk of several severe liver diseases. Recent studies in several countries have found drastic increases in the frequency of the disease and described hepatitis C as a possible new epidemic among MSM. Sexual transmission of Hepatitis C is rare among non-MSM. However, it has been suggested and several studies have found support for that sexual behaviors that causes trauma to mucous membranes and consequent bleeding may be a transmission cause (such behaviors also increases the risk of other STDs). Such sexual behaviors include anal sex, fisting, rimming, enema, sex toys, group sex, and drugs that applied to mucous membranes (such as in the nose). Also other STDs that cause wounds in mucous membranes may contribute as well as HIV-infection that suppresses the immune system.[36][37] More effective new drugs against Hepatits C has been developed but are very costly.[38]

"Gay bowel syndrome" is a term used to describe the various sexually transmitted anal and rectal diseases and sexual traumas and related to anal sex.

A higher use of tobacco, alcohol, and drugs have been reported for homosexuals of both sexes than for heterosexuals. Also various problems related to this has been reported.[34]

A 2013 literature review stated that homosexuals/bisexuals as compared to heterosexuals had poorer general health and increased risk for cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, asthma, allergies, arthritis, and chronic gastro-intestinal problems. There was also a higher prevalence and earlier onset of disabilities, such as use of a walking assistant. Heterosexual men also had a higher risk of migraine headaches and urinary incontinence.[39]

Mental health

A large 2008 meta-analysis stated that homosexuals/bisexuals as compared to heterosexuals had increased risk for depression and anxiety disorders, alcohol and other substance dependence, and suicide attempt. The results were similar for both sexes but female homosexuals/bisexuals had a particularly large risk for substance dependence while male homosexuals/bisexuals had a particularly large risk for suicide attempt.[40]

A 2010 twin study in Sweden stated that "Rates of depression, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), eating disorders, alcohol dependence and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were increased among men and women with same-sex sexual experiences."[41]

A higher frequency of bipolar disease, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and phobias have been reported for homosexual men as compared to heterosexual men.[42]

Studies have also stated a higher frequency of psychotic symptoms and psychotic illnesses like schizophrenia in homosexuals. Also a higher frequency of certain personality disorders have been reported.[43][44][45]

Causes of health differences

While homosexual activists often explain the health differences as due to causes such as stress caused by persecution there are also other possibilities.

A higher prevalence of substance abuse may contribute to health differences and may be caused by factors such as a subculture with many visits to bars/clubs. Sexually transmitted diseases increase the risks of certain cancers. Women never being pregnant have a higher risk of breast cancer. A high prevalence of stress and depression may have negative effects on the immune system. Also nutritional patterns may contribute.[34]

Another possibility is differences regarding coping styles. A 2009 study found that homosexual men as compared to heterosexual men more strongly applied emotion-oriented and avoidance coping strategies. The more emotion-oriented coping was argued to be an explanation for health differences. Sexual orientation was not related to different coping styles for women.[46]

Several studies have found support for that whatever factors are causing homosexuality (including possibly genetic factors) at the same time contribute to the poorer health.[41][47][48]

If endocrine disruptors are factors contributing to homosexuality, then they may also possibly disrupt various organ systems and cause negative health effects.

Maltreatment in childhood/adolescence is associated with later homosexuality (see the section "Causes of homosexuality"). It is possible that this maltreatment at the same time could cause poorer health through mechanisms such as stress.[26]

Gender nonconforming behaviors in general (not just homosexual) are associated with poorer health. One explanation is that such behaviors are associated with increased risk of maltreatment (including sexual abuse and bullying) by family members and other persons. Since homosexuality is associated with gender nonconforming behaviors in general (not just homosexual), then this may be an explanation for the poorer health of homosexuals.[49][50][51] This could also mean that undermining the traditional gender roles of children/adolescents may increase the risk of maltreatment (and also may be a cause of homosexuality as noted in the section "Causes of homosexuality").

Homosexuality and pedophilia

Supporters of homosexuality have argued that studies using methods such as measuring the blood flow to the penis while watching pictures of children have shown that homosexuals in general are not attracted to children.[21]

Regardless, there are also homosexual pedophiles. 2007 literature review stated that 9-40% of pedophiles are homosexuals which is approximately 4 to 20 times higher than the rate of adult men attracted to other adult men.[52]

Studies using self-report stated that heterosexual pedophiles on average reported abusing 5.2 children and committing 34 acts, homosexual pedophiles 10.7 children and 57 acts, and bisexual pedophiles 27.3 children and 120 acts. An anonymous study of non–incest-related pedophiles whose legal situations were resolved found much larger numbers. The study found that heterosexual pedophiles on average reported abusing 19.8 children and committing 23.2 acts, whereas homosexual pedophiles on average had abused 150.2 children and committed 281.7 acts. Homosexual pedophiles had higher recidivism rates than heterosexual pedophiles.[52]

Most pedophiles were stated to not be exclusively attracted to children. A study of male pedophiles found that only 7% of male pedophiles stated that they were exclusively attracted to children.[52]

The review also stated that homosexual pedophiles have a higher probability than heterosexual pedophiles of themselves having been abused as children.[52]

More generally, a 2016 review stated that compared to heterosexuals, non-heterosexuals are about two to three times as likely to have experienced childhood sexual abuse.[16]

The Family Research Institute has cited studies such as the 1948 Kinsey survey which stated that 37% of the gays admitted to sexual relations with under-17-yr-olds. The Kinsey survey has been criticized as being non-representative but homosexual activists have frequently cited other results from it. Family Research Institute has also cited other surveys stating high numbers as well as studies on teacher molestation stating that homosexuals were greatly over-represented.[53]

The Family Research institute has also stated that the gay movement at least previously was "forthright about seeking to legitimize child-adult homosexual sex." For example, the North American Man/Boy Love Association was stated to have marched in many LGBT pride parades with the stated goal of removing the barriers to man-boy sex.[53]

Children and homosexual parents

The well-being of children raised by homosexual parents as compared to heterosexual parents is a very controversial research field. Many studies have argued that there are no differences. Critics have argued that most or all of these studies have large methodological problems. These include being based on the opinions of the parents regarding their young children rather than examining the outcomes of the children when they had reached adulthood. Another that the studies mostly used non-random, non-representative data which often employed small samples, recruited by methods such as advertising in women's bookstores, and which therefore cannot be generalized to the larger population of gay and lesbian families. Often these non-random samples consisted of white, middle-class homosexuals but the results may then have been compared with studies using nationally representative heterosexual samples. Critics have also argued that newer and better studies have found more negative outcomes for children with homosexual parents.[54][55][56]

One such study, a large 2012 study by Mark Regnerus, randomly selected and representative of the American population, examined the outcomes for children who have grown up in different family constellations including homosexual ones. On a large number of social, emotional, and relational outcomes the children who had grown up with two heterosexual parents did better than other children even after controlling for differences in age, gender, race/ethnicity, level of mother’s education, perceived family-of-origin’s income, experience with having been bullied as a youth, and the "gay friendliness" of the respondent’s current state of residence. Furthermore, while 90% of those growing up with two biological parents identified themselves as entirely heterosexual, only 61%/71% of the children to lesbian mothers/gay fathers did so. 2% of children growing up with two biological parents reported being ever being touched sexually by parents, while for children to lesbian mothers/gay fathers the numbers were 23%/6%.[56]

Not surprisingly, the study was immediately and intensely attacked. The criticisms were widely reported in the politically correct media but not the counter-criticisms by Regnerus and others.[57][58][59]

A large 2013 Canadian study found much worse educational achievement for children with homosexual parents and in particular for girls.[60]

Relationship stability

Studies have found a higher risk for divorce and separations for homosexual relationships and in particular for lesbian relationships. An increased risk was found also when the relationship included children.[57]

Violence and general criminality

US data released in 2013 stated that homosexuals/bisexuals of both sexes as compared to heterosexuals experienced equal to much higher sexual and intimate partner violence during their lifetime. The study noted that "this report do not indicate whether violence occurs more often in same-sex or opposite sex couples" but it regardless described large group differences regarding "the prevalence of lifetime victimization of intimate partner violence, sexual violence and stalking".[61][62]

A 2013 study stated that "The emergence of research on intimate partner violence (IPV) among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) has demonstrated that IPV occurs in male-male partnerships at rates similar to or higher than opposite-sex partnerships. Recently, researchers have documented vastly varied, though universally high, rates of IPV among MSM: between 32–78% for any form of IPV, 12–45% for physical IPV, and 5–33% for sexual IPV". The study itself among other findings stated large racial differences regarding intimate partner violence among homosexual/bisexual men.[63]

The Family Research institute has argued for various connections between homosexuality and violence such as violent sexual practices, homosexual rapes, deliberately infecting others with STDs, and over-representation as mass/serial murderers.[64]

A 2005 study by a Family Research Institute researcher stated that homosexuals as compared to heterosexuals had increased risk of criminality. One explanation is more use of alcohol and drugs.[65]

Argued pro-homosexual bias in research and statements on research

A study 2010 examined three different scientific articles on lesbian parenting. The articles had many similarities. However, one article likely had a better methodology than the other articles but showed results more negative for lesbian parenting. This article was almost never cited by other articles while the worse quality/pro-lesbian articles were cited extensively by other articles. This was argued to be possible evidence of a current pro-homosexual bias in the social sciences.[66]

An earlier president of the American Psychological Association (APA) who himself contributed to delisting homosexuality as a disease stated in 2012 that the organization had been taken over by "ultra-liberals" and that political ideology had become more important than science when APA made public statements on certain issues such as homosexuality. Furthermore, white homosexuals were stated to be under-represented within the APA and homosexual activists were stated to have a large influence. Also other persons with earlier top positions within APA as well as other critics has made similar statements.[67][68][69][70]

The author of a large 2016 review with some less politically correct findings stated that "I strongly support equality and oppose discrimination for the LGBT community, and I have testified on their behalf as a statistical expert. [...] In the course of writing this report, I consulted a number of individuals who asked that I not thank them by name. Some feared an angry response from the more militant elements of the LGBT community; others feared an angry response from the more strident elements of religiously conservative communities. Most bothersome, however, is that some feared reprisals from their own universities for engaging such controversial topics, regardless of the report’s content — a sad statement about academic freedom."[16]

Media propaganda

Conservatives and even some liberals themselves have argued that the liberal Hollywood deliberately inserts homosexual propaganda in movies and television. Thus, in 1987 gay activists stated that "Where we talk is important. The visual media, film and television, are plainly the most powerful image-makers in Western civilization. The average American household watches over seven hours of TV daily. Those hours open up a gateway into the private world of straights, through which a Trojan horse might be passed … So far, gay Hollywood has provided our best covert weapon in the battle to desensitize the mainstream".[71]

GLAAD (earlier an abbreviation for "Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation") is an influential American lobby organization that scrutinizes, influences, and censors depictions and descriptions of homosexuals in the media. Critics have argued that this is an important reason for pro-homosexual being more or less openly inserted in, for example, movies or TV series. Such deliberate propaganda has also been admitted by influential persons involved in well-known entertainment productions. Critics have also pointed to the article "The Overhauling of Straight America" (1987) and the book "After the Ball: How America Will Conquer Its Fear and Hatred of Gays in the ’90s" (1989) which described several propaganda techniques that could be used in order to change the public opinion on homosexuality. Critics have argued that many of these propaganda techniques have been used in the media.[72][73][71]

In a 2013 speech, then United States Vice President Joe Biden stated that Jewish leaders in the media were in large part responsible for American acceptance of gay marriage. "I believe what affects the movements in America, what affects our attitudes in America are as much the culture and the arts as anything else... ...I bet you 85 percent of those changes, whether it’s in Hollywood or social media are a consequence of Jewish leaders in the industry... ...The influence is immense, the influence is immense."[74]

Pornography

A larger consumption of pornography predicts more positive attitudes towards homosexuality in the future.[75][76]

Other political activism

The "Gay Mafia" or "Velvet Mafia" is a term to describe an amalgamation of gay lobby and rights groups in politics and the media.

The first LGBT pride parade occurred in 1970 and such parades have thereafter become common.

Queer theory is a critical theory that emerged in the early 1990s out of the fields of queer studies (LGBT studies) and Women's studies and characterized by gender denialism (compare race denialism). Adherents are often particularly radical ivory tower academics and queer theory can be seen as analogous to the position of radical feminism within the feminist movement, although queer theorists are arguably even more radical. Queer theorists sometimes oppose the demands by other LGBT people such as same-sex marriage since it would supposedly stigmatize other types of relationships.[77]

Several very wealthy Jews and/or homosexuals/homosexual supporters have been argued to try to influence the Republican Party in the United States to become more supportive of homosexuality.[78][79][80]

Homosexuals and mass immigration

Same-sex intercourse illegal:      Death penalty     Up to life in prison     Imprisonment      Unenforced penalty

Homosexuals are often a particularly strange part of the leftist-Islamist alliance with homosexual organizations often supporting the mass immigration despite this meaning a rapidly growing number of Islamists and other immigrants with far harsher views than Christian conservatives on homosexuality and on what society should do.

However, this support may be changing as it becomes increasingly harder to deny the Islamist threat. In France, a survey found a dramatic increase in support for the Front National among homosexual and bisexual voters since the French presidential elections of April 2012. It showed, for instance, that in Paris 26 per cent of homosexuals supported Front National, compared with 16 per cent of heterosexuals.[81]

See also Anti-Islamization: Opinion surveys of Muslims on views on homosexuals.

Opposition to homosexuality

Opposition to homosexuality is common in many cultures and religions. Homosexuality has often been seen as a crime against the natural/religious order and the proscribed punishment has often been very severe.

One example is that Tacitus in his Germania stated that "In the assembly it is allowed to present accusations, and to prosecute capital offences. Punishments vary according to the quality of the crime. Traitors and deserters they hang upon trees. Cowards, and sluggards, and unnatural prostitutes they smother in mud and bogs under a heap of hurdles. Such diversity in their executions has this view, that in punishing of glaring iniquities, it behoves likewise to display them to sight; but effeminacy and pollution must be buried and concealed." The "unnatural prostitutes" (Latin: "corpore infames") are argued to be homosexuals.[82][83]

Other examples include the Jewish Bible in Leviticus 20:13: "If a man has sexual relations with a man as one does with a woman, both of them have done what is detestable. They are to be put to death; their blood will be on their own heads."[84] Another an Amerindian Aztec law proscribing torture and death for homosexuals.[85]

Today homosexuality is prohibited in many non-Western countries with the punishment in some non-Western countries including life imprisonment or the death penalty.

A 2013 global survey found that large parts of the populations in many countries stated that society should not accept homosexuality. The most positive views were found in Western countries but even here there were large minorities stating that society should not accept homosexuality.[86] Presumably there were also groups that had various negative but less severe views on homosexuality.

Such widespread and severe views on homosexuality may suggest a genetic/evolutionary cause for the aversion. Such an explanation has been proposed in the scientific literature. Homosexuality is associated with reduced reproductive success. Therefore, if homosexual behavior is at least partly learned, in particular during childhood, then it should be evolutionary beneficial for parents to keep homosexuals from associating with their children. Thus, testable predictions are that aversion against homosexuals should be particularly strongly felt by parents and when homosexuals are likely to be in contact with children. These predictions have been experimentally confirmed. The results have been argued to exclude general "xenophobia" as an explanation for aversion against homosexuality.[87][88]

Homosexuals and the Holocaust

See Claimed mass killings of non-Jews by National Socialist Germany and The Myth of a Nazi Extermination of Homosexuals.

Views on homosexuality by various websites

Homosexuality is rejected by various religions and conservatives. Consequently, large amounts of criticisms can be found in such sources. For example Conservapedia has a large number of pages dedicated to religious as well as non-religious criticisms, with sources, regarding areas such infectious diseases, physical health, mental health, substance abuse, crime, pedophilia, lobbying, coverage in media, history, and other topics. The liberal views can similarly be found in liberal sources such as Wikipedia. See the links below in the "External links" section.

Criticisms by religious organizations tend to ignore evolutionary arguments and criticisms since they often deny evolution.

See also

External links

References

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