Exploration

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Exploration is the act of searching or traveling a terrain (including space, see space exploration) for the purpose of discovery of resources or information. Exploration occurs in all non-sessile animal species, including humans. In human history, its peak is seen during the Age of Discovery for Europe's contact with the rest of the world, and Major explorations after the Age of Discovery for scientific exploration in the modern era.

Contents

Notable explorers

5th century BC

4th century BC

3rd century BC

  • Xu Fu (b. 255 BC) – Chinese court sorcerer who led two voyages to the Eastern Seas in 219 BC and 210 BC.

5th century

8th century

  • Dicuil (born 8th century) – Irish monk and geographer, author of "De mensura Orbis terrae".
  • The PaparIrish monks who lived in Iceland, 8th-9th centuries, before the Vikings.

10th century

13th century

14th century

15th century


16th century

17th century

18th century


19th century

20th century

  • Colonel Noel Andrew Croft (1906–1998) – held the record for the longest self-sustaining journey across the Arctic in the 1930s for 60 years.
  • Sir Edmund Percival Hillary (1919–2008) – New Zealand explorer, together with Tenzing Norgay, the first to climb Mount Everest on May 29, 1953.
  • Neil Armstrong (b. August 5, 1930) – American astronaut – First human being to set foot on the Moon on July 20, 1969.
  • Yuri Gagarin (March 9, 1934 – March 27, 1968) – Soviet cosmonaut who on April 12, 1961 became the first man in space and the first human to orbit Earth.
  • Valentina Tereshkova (b. 1937) – one of the first people in space; first female cosmonaut.
  • Robert Ballard (b. 1942) – undersea explorer; discovered the shipwreck of the RMS Titanic.
  • Ranulph Fiennes (b. 7 March 1944) – British adventurer. First journey around the world on its polar axis using surface transport only, covered 52,000 miles and visited both poles by land. First unsupported crossing of Antarctica.
  • Reinhold Messner (b. September 17, 1944) – Italian mountaineer, first man to climb all the 14 peaks higher than 8,000 meters.
  • E. Lee Spence (b. 1947) – undersea explorer and pioneer underwater archaeologist: discovered numerous shipwrecks including H.L. Hunley the first submarine in history to sink an enemy ship; and the Georgiana, said to have been the most powerful Confederate cruiser.
  • Robyn Davidson (b. September 6, 1950) – the first person to make a solo crossing of the Australian Outback by camel; she also explored the remote desert regions of India.[7]
  • Michael Asher (b. 1953) – British adventurer. In 1986–7 Michael Asher and his wife, Italian-born photographer and Arabist, Mariantonietta Peru, made the first ever west-east crossing of the Sahara desert by camel and on foot.
  • Frank Cole (1954–2000) – Canadian adventurer, filmmaker and life extensionist. He was the first North American to cross the Sahara desert in 1990 alone on camel. He was murdered by bandits during a second crossing in 2000.
  • Kira Salak (b. September 4, 1971) – a National Geographic Emerging Explorer[8], Salak was the first woman to cross the island of New Guinea; she was also the first person in the world to kayak 600 miles alone to Timbuktu. Salak has done solo exploration to regions such as Borneo, Libya, Iran, Madagascar, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.[9]
  • Jeremy Curl (b. 1982) – British adventurer; the youngest to traverse the Sahara on foot and the first non African to cross the desolate Tanezrouft area of the Sahara by camel.
Part of this article consists of modified text from Wikipedia, and the article is therefore licensed under GFDL.

References

  1. Ancient Silk Road Travellers
  2. Battuta's Travels
  3. Petringa, Maria (January 1997). Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza. Harvard Magazine. Retrieved on 31 March 2010.
  4. Padilla, Victoria. "Mulford B. Foster". Journal of the Bromeliad Society, 1978. Vol 28, #6, pg 243–244
  5. "A Bibliography of Plant Collectors in Bolivia" (PDF).
  6. The World of Ahmed Bey Hassanein. SaharaSafaris (18 March 2007). Retrieved on 31 March 2010.
  7. "Robyn Davidson book".
  8. "National Geographic Explorer Kira Salak".
  9. Salak, Kira. "Kira Salak's official website".
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