Albert Einstein

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Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein in 1921
Born 14 March 1879(1879-03-14)
Ulm, Kingdom of Württemberg, German Empire
Died 18 April 1955 (aged 76)
Princeton, New Jersey, United States
Residence Germany, Italy, Switzerland, United States
Ethnicity Jewish
Citizenship
Alma mater
Known for
Spouse Mileva Marić (1903–1919)
Elsa Löwenthal, née Einstein, (1919–1936)
Awards
Signature

Albert Einstein (March 14, 1879April 18, 1955) was a Jewish physicist and member of the German Communist Party.[2] He is credited with creating Einstein's special and general theory of relativity. However, his writings, including for example his popular 1924 book,[3] have been accused of plagiarism.[4]. Einstein received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics “for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect[5] which has been criticized.[6]

Contents

Youth and Schooling

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Albert Einstein in 1893 (age 14), taken before the family moved to Italy

Albert Einstein was born into a Jewish family in Ulm, Württemberg, Germany. His father was Hermann Einstein, a salesman and engineer. His mother was Pauline Einstein (née Koch). Although Albert had early speech difficulties, he was a top student in elementary school [7]. Einstein's native language was German, and he later learned Italian and English.

In 1880, the family moved to Munich, where his father and his uncle founded a company, Elektrotechnische Fabrik J. Einstein & Cie that manufactured electrical equipment, providing the first lighting for the Oktoberfest and cabling for the Munich suburb of Schwabing. The Einsteins were not observant of Jewish religious practices, and Albert attended a Catholic elementary school. At his mother's insistence, he took violin lessons, and although he disliked them and eventually quit, he would later take great pleasure in Mozart's violin sonatas [8].

When Albert was five, his father showed him a pocket compass. Albert realized that something in empty space was moving the needle and later stated that this experience made "a deep and lasting impression" [8]. As he grew, Albert built models and mechanical devices for fun, and began to show a talent for mathematics.

In 1889, family friend Max Talmud (later: Talmey), a medical student, introduced the ten-year-old Albert to key science and philosophy texts, including Kant's Critique of Pure Reason and Euclid's Elements (Einstein called it the "holy little geometry book"). From Euclid, Albert began to understand deductive reasoning (integral to theoretical physics), and by the age of twelve, he learned Euclidean geometry from a school booklet. Soon thereafter he began to investigate calculus [7].

In his early teens, Albert attended the new and progressive "Luitpold gymnasium". His father intended for him to pursue electrical engineering, but Albert clashed with authorities and resented the school regimen. He later wrote that the spirit of learning and creative thought were lost in strict rote learning [8].

In 1894, when Einstein was fifteen, his father's business failed, and the Einstein family moved to Italy, first to Milan and then, after a few months, to Pavia. During this time, Albert wrote his first scientific work, "The Investigation of the State of Aether in Magnetic Fields". Albert had been left behind in Munich to finish high school, but in the spring of 1895, he withdrew to join his family in Pavia, convincing the school to let him go by using a doctor's note [7].

Rather than completing high school, Albert decided to apply directly to the ETH Zurich, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Switzerland. Without a school certificate, he was required to take an entrance examination. Being two years younger than the normal age of application, he was granted special dispensation to take the examination. He did not pass, but his results in mathematics and physics were exceptional. [Fölsing, A. "Albert Einstein", 1997, p. 37] Einstein wrote that it was in that same year, at age 16, that he first performed his famous thought experiment, visualizing traveling alongside a beam of light [8].

The Einsteins sent Albert to Aarau, Switzerland to finish secondary school. While lodging with the family of Professor Jost Winteler, he fell in love with the family's daughter, Sofia Marie-Jeanne Amanda Winteler, called "Marie". (Albert's sister, Maja, his confidant, later married Paul Winteler.) In Aarau, Albert studied Maxwell's electromagnetic theory. In 1896, he graduated at age 17, renounced his German citizenship to avoid military service (with his father's approval), and finally enrolled in the mathematics and physics teaching diploma program at ETH. On February 21, 1901, he gained Swiss citizenship, which he never revoked. Marie moved to Olsberg, Switzerland for a teaching post [7].

Family Life

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Mileva Marić about 1896

In 1896, Einstein's future wife, Mileva Marić, also enrolled at ETH as the only woman studying for the mathematics and physics teaching diploma that year. During the next few years, Einstein and Marić's friendship developed into romance. Einstein's mother objected to the relationship because she thought Marić "too old", a "Shiksa", and "physically defective" [9]. A year before they married, Maric gave birth to a daughter, Lieserl, born in early 1902, while Einstein was away[8]. If was a big taboo to have a child outside of wedlock during that era, especially at a university setting. Her fate is unknown-she is presumed to have been given up for adoption, perhaps under pressure from Einstein, who is thought to have never seen his firstborn.

Some writers claim that Mileva authored or co-authored some of Einstein's work at this time [9][10]. However, following the loss of Liserl, and her twofold failure to obtain a teaching diploma, their eldest son Hans Albert reports that Mileva gave up her academic ambitions, and although she undoubtedly provided invaluable support for her husband, substantive collaboration is not accepted by historians of physics who have looked into the issue [11].

After the marriage, Mileva bore two sons but the family was not to stay together.

Einstein was far from the ideal husband. He began an affair with his cousin Elsa Lowenthal while on a trip to Berlin in 1912, leaving Mileva and his family two years later. Einstein and Mileva finally divorced in 1919, but not until after Einstein sent his wife a list of ‘conditions’ under which he was willing to remain married. The list included such autocratic demands as ‘You are neither to expect intimacy nor to reproach me in any way’ [12]. Einstein married Elsa soon after the divorce, but a few years later began an affair with Betty Neumann, the niece of a friend. After the divorce, he saw little of his sons. The elder, Hans Albert, later reflected ‘Probably the only project he ever gave up on was me’ [12]. The younger, Eduard, was diagnosed with schizophrenia and died in an asylum.

There is evidence he is a womanizer and wife-beater. His main successful papers came when he was married to his first wife and after that, he had trouble. There is suspicion she gave his theories to him. His divorce to her contained a clause that if he won the Nobel Prize he would deposit the money in a Swiss bank account in Mileva's name.[13][14][15][16]

The Patent Office

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The 'Einsteinhaus' in Bern where Einstein lived with Mileva on the first floor during his Annus Mirabilis (Wonderful Year)

Einstein graduated in 1900 from ETH with a degree in physics [8]. That same year, Einstein's friend Michele Besso introduced him to the work of Ernst Mach. The next year, Einstein published a paper in the prestigious Annalen der Physik on the capillary forces of a straw (Einstein 1901).

Following graduation, Einstein could not find a teaching post. After almost two years of searching, a former classmate's father helped him get a job in Bern, at the Federal Office for Intellectual Property, the patent office, as an assistant examiner. His responsibility was evaluating patent applications for electromagnetic devices. In 1903, Einstein's position at the Swiss Patent Office was made permanent, although he was passed over for promotion until he "fully mastered machine technology" [17].

Einstein's college friend, Michele Besso, also worked at the patent office. With friends, they met in Bern, they formed a weekly discussion club on science and philosophy, jokingly named "The Olympia Academy" [8]. Their readings included Poincaré, Mach and Hume, whom Einstein heavily "borrowed" from to craft his own scientific and philosophical outlook.

While this period at the patent office has often been cited as a waste of Einstein's talents, or as a temporary job with no connection to his interests in physics, the historian of science Peter Galison has argued that Einstein's work there was connected to his later interests [18]. His work was not quantum mechanics or theoretical physics, but was reviewing technical documents for patents of every day items relating to questions about transmission of electric signals and electrical-mechanical synchronization of time.

In 1905, while working in the patent office, without the aid of university colleagues, a staff of graduate students, a laboratory, or any of the things normally associated with an academic setting, Einstein in his spare time wrote four ground-breaking essays in the field of theoretical physics and quantum mechanics that were published in the Annalen der Physik, the leading German physics journal.

Many people have recognized the impossibility of such a feat, including Einstein himself, and therefore Einstein has led people to believe that many of these ideas came to him in his sleep, out of the blue [8], because indeed that is the only logical explanation of how an admittedly inept bureaucrat could have written such documents at the age of 26 without any real education.

These are the papers that history has come to call the Annus Mirabilis Papers:

His paper on the particulate nature of light put forward the idea that certain experimental results, notably the photoelectric effect, could be simply understood from the postulate that light interacts with matter as discrete "packets" (quanta) of energy, an idea that had been introduced by Max Planck in 1900 [19] as a purely mathematical manipulation, and which seemed to contradict contemporary wave theories of light. The only difference in his work of 1900 and Einstein's work of 1905 was that Einstein limited himself to talking about one particular type of energy -- light energy. But the principles and equations governing the process in general had been deduced by Planck in 1900. Einstein himself admitted that the obvious conclusion of Planck's work was that light also existed in discrete packets of energy. Thus, nothing in this paper of Einstein's was original. This was the only work of Einstein's that he himself pronounced as "revolutionary".

His paper on Brownian motion explained the random movement of very small objects as direct evidence of molecular action, thus supporting the atomic theory. The movement had first been observed by the Scottish botanist Robert Brown in 1827 [20]. The explanation of this phenomenon has to do with the Kinetic Theory of Matter, and it was the American Josiah Gibbs and the Austrian Ludwig Boltzmann who first explained this occurrence [21], not Albert Einstein. In fact, the mathematical equation describing the motion contains the famous Boltzmann constant, k [22]. Between these two men, they had explained by the 1890s everything in Einstein's 1905 paper regarding Brownian motion.

His paper on the electrodynamics of moving bodies proposed the radical theory of special relativity, cribbed from Lorentz and Poincaré [23], which showed that the independence of an observer's state of motion on the observed speed of light requires fundamental changes to the notion of simultaneity. The consequences of this include the time-space frame of a moving body slowing down and contracting (in the direction of motion) relative to the frame of the observer. This paper also argued that the idea of a ‘luminiferous ether’- one of the leading theoretical entities in physics at the time- was superfluous.

In his paper on the equivalence of matter and energy, Einstein published what later became the most famous expression in all of science: E = mc2, suggesting (not for the first time) that tiny amounts of mass could be converted into huge amounts of energy. That there was an equivalence between mass and energy had been shown in the laboratory in the 1890s by both J. J. Thomson of Cambridge and by W. Kaufmann in Göttingen [24]. In 1900, Poincaré‚ had shown that there was a mass relationship for all forms of energy, not just electromagnetic energy [25]. Yet, the most probable source of Einstein's plagiarism was Friedrich Hasenöhrl, one of the most brilliant, yet unappreciated physicists of the era [26].

All four papers are today recognized as tremendous achievements—and hence 1905 is known as Einstein's "Wonderful Year". At the time, however, they were not noticed by most physicists as being important, and many of those who did notice them rejected them outright. Some of this work—such as the theory of light quanta—remained controversial for years. At the age of 26, having studied under Alfred Kleiner, Professor of Experimental Physics, Einstein was awarded a PhD by the University of Zurich. His dissertation was entitled "A New Determination of Molecular Dimensions."

Einstein's political ideology

Einstein was a virulent racist and segregationist zionist[27]. Kevin Macdonald in his book The culture of critique[28] addressed on page vii Einstein's strong Jewish ethnicism, namely that:

  • Einstein was a strongly motivated Zionist[28],
  • Einstein opposed assimilation as a contemptible form of “mimicry”[28],
  • Einstein preferred to mix with other Jews whom he referred to as his “tribal companions”[28],
  • Einstein embraced the uncritical support for the Bolshevik regime in Russia[28],
  • Einstein switched from a high-minded pacifism during World War I, when Jewish interests were not at stake, to advocating the building of atomic bombs to defeat Hitler[28],
  • From his teenage years Einstein disliked the Germans and in later life criticized Jewish colleagues for converting to Christianity and acting like Prussians[28],
  • Einstein especially disliked Prussians, who were the elite ethnic group in Germany[28],
  • Reviewing his life at age 73, Einstein declared his ethnic affiliation in no uncertain terms: “My relationship with Jewry had become my strongest human tie once I achieved complete clarity about our precarious position among the nations”[28].
Albert Einstein seen here with his wife Elsa Einstein and Zionist leaders, including future President of the Zionist entity in Palestine Chaim Weizmann, his wife Dr. Vera Weizmann, Menachem Ussishkin and Ben-Zion Mossinson on arrival in New York City in 1921.

Einstein served on the Board of Governors of The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. In his Will of 1950, Einstein bequeathed literary rights to his writings to The Hebrew University, where many of his original documents are held in the Albert Einstein Archives[29].

The Nobel Prize

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In 1921 Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics, "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect". This refers to his 1905 paper on the photoelectric effect: On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light, which was well-supported by the experimental evidence by that time. The presentation speech began by mentioning "his theory of relativity [which had] been the subject of lively debate in philosophical circles [and] also has astrophysical implications which are being rigorously examined at the present time" [29]. As per their divorce settlement, Einstein gave the Nobel prize money to his first wife, Mileva Marić.

Einstein traveled to New York City in the United States for the first time on April 2, 1921. When asked where he got his scientific ideas, Einstein explained that he believed scientific work best proceeds from an examination of physical reality and a search for underlying axioms, with consistent explanations that apply in all instances and avoid contradicting each other. He also recommended theories with visualizable results.

Einstein's modus operandi

Dealing with criticism

A characteristic of Einstein's way of dealing with criticism is to make accusations of "antisemitism". For example, on August 27, 1920, the front page of the Berliner Tageblatt, a Berlin daily newspaper, printed the following statement by Albert Einstein:

"Under the pretentious name “Arbeitsgemeinschaft deutscher Naturforscher” [“Working Society of German Scientists”], a variegated society has assembled whose provisional purpose of existence seems to be to degrade, in the eyes of nonscientists, the theory of relativity, as well as me as its originator.... I have good reason to believe that motives other than the striving for truth are at the bottom of this business. (If I were a German nationalist with or without a swastika instead of a Jew with liberal international views, then...)."

Another way in which Einstein deals with criticism is to answer with a "funny" comment. For example, in 1931 a book was published entitled "100 Authors against Einstein" in which Einstein's theories were refuted. Einstein's comment: "If I was really wrong one author should have been enough.". Einstein never responded to the criticism in this book.

Plagiarism

In some cases, plagiarism can be explained away as a simple slip-up. For Albert Einstein, however, lifting the ideas of others seemed to be second nature.

Today, Albert Einstein is revered as the greatest genius of the 20th century. His wrinkled countenance and frazzled gray hair have become the symbol of scientific brilliance, and the equation E=mc2 has become the apogee of scientific and intellectual perfection. Over the years, he built a career both physicists and laymen admired -- teaching awards, a long list of publications, a Nobel Prize and a lecture series named in his honor [30]. Yet, there seems to be ample evidence that the “Father of Modern Science” was nothing but a very intelligent con man, embroidering his achievements and plagiarizing the work and research of many others [31].

The most appalling evidence against Einstein is that one of the most famous mathematical equations in the world, E=mc2, was not originally published by Einstein. According to Umberto Bartocci, a professor at the University of Perugia and a historian of mathematics, this famous equation was first published by Olinto De Pretto two years prior to Einstein’s publishing of the equation [32] [33]. In 1903 De Pretto published his equation in the scientific magazine Atte [34] and in 1904 it was republished by the Royal Science Institute of Veneto. Einstein’s research was not published until 1905 [35]. Einstein was well versed in Italian and even lived in Northern Italy at the time [8].

Einstein’s many supporters and contacts conspired to pass over the original inventor of the equation and to give credit to someone who claims to have derived it after the equation and its derivation had been published [31] The equation "E=mc2" should rightfully be called the “De Pretto Equation” not the “Einstein Equation.”

This was not the end of his plagiarism. Einstein heavily borrowed from the work of Hendrik Lorentz and Henri Poincaré in formulating the theory of special relativity. Elements of Einstein’s 1905 paper paralleled parts of a 1904 paper by Lorentz and a contemporary paper by Poincaré. Among the most blatant borrowings is a 180-word passage from the Lorentz paper that is appropriated almost verbatim, down to the random examples, the conjunctions, and the commas. Einstein never cites the paper[35]. Einstein doesn't stop there. On the following page, he takes more than 350 words from the Poincaré paper. Later in the same essay, along with copying still more sentences from Poincaré, Einstein pilfers a good-size paragraph from De Pretto’s 1903 Atte article [34]

Although Einstein admitted to reading earlier papers by the two, he claimed not to have seen these later works before writing the 1905 paper [8]. One very irregular fact is that the 1905 paper on special relativity had no references or citations at all, suggesting that Einstein was consciously misleading his peers [35]

On November 20, 1915, David Hilbert submitted an article containing the field equations for general relativity with proofs in Göttingen, Germany [36]. On November 25, 1915, Einstein presented his paper in Berlin, Germany [37]. On November 18, Hilbert received a letter from Einstein thanking him for sending him a copy of the draft of the treatise Hilbert was to deliver on the 20th [38]. So, in fact, Hilbert had sent a copy of his work, at least two weeks in advance, to Einstein before either of the two men delivered their lectures, however, Einstein did not send Hilbert an advance copy of his. Incredibly, Hilbert’s work was soon to become “Einstein’s work.”

The idea that light had a finite speed was proven by Michelson and Morley decades before Einstein [39] Hendrik Lorentz determined the equations showing relativistic time and length contractions which become significant as the speed of light is approached. These gentlemen along with David Hilbert and Olinto De Pretto have been erased from history so that Einstein could be given the credit for what they had done.

In 1927, H. Thirring wrote ‘H. Poincaré had already completely solved the problem of time dilation several years before the appearance of Einstein’s first work in 1905’ [40]. Sir Edmund Whittaker, in his detailed physics survey, A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity, Volume II, (1953), included a chapter entitled "The Relativity Theory of Poincaré and Lorentz". Whittaker thoroughly documented the development of the theory, documenting the authentic history and demonstrating through reference to primary source that Einstein deserved no credit for the vast majority of the theory. When questioned, Einstein offered no counterpoint to the facts published in Whittaker’s famous book [41].

De Pretto published his equation twice before Einstein and was ignored each time. David Hilbert’s work on the equations for the "general theory" of relativity was submitted for publication before Einstein and was, in fact, sent to Einstein as correspondence. Einstein later claimed credit for the equations which Hilbert derived.

Einstein’s long list of literary transgressions is troubling enough, but even more worrisome is his ability to get away with it for so long. He did write a personal note to Hilbert in 1943, just before his death, claiming that, “It is not my intention to claim the work of others…” [8] [42].

"Orgone energy accumulator"

Einstein was involved with Wilhelm Reich in "scientific" research into "Orgone energy accumulation"[43]. Wilhelm Reich was at the time seen as the leader of a cult of sex and anarchy and one of Reich's books was entitled The Function of the Orgasm. Moreover, the word "Orgone" (that does not exist in the English language) is a portmanteau of the words "Orgasm" and "Ozone". There can therefore be no doubt that Reich's meaning of term "Orgone" must have been a sort of "nascent sexual energy" and that the Orgone energy accumulator's purpose is to harvest this "source" of energy. Some typical picture of "orgone energy accumulators" can be found on orgone-energy websites, for example the following picture (warning: this picture is not suitable for on Metapedia, so here only a link is given).

The "orgone energy accumulator" is some sort of box with metallic material lining the insides of its walls, that can accumulate "nascent sexual energy" presumably created by sexual acts performed in the "orgone energy accumulator". Common sense quickly rejects such things as quackery, pseudoscience, and perversion. Not Einstein, however, whose collaboration with Reich in the field of "Orgone energy accumulation" was extensive and included for example correspondence and "scientific" visits of Einstein to Reich. Reich published in 1953 a book[43] about his collaboration with Einstein, in a very limited edition. The Wilhelm Reich instute today still sells "copies" of this book, but it is well possible that these so-called copies have been sanitized by taking out the parts potentially embarrassing for Einstein.

Death

On April 17, 1955, Albert Einstein experienced internal bleeding caused by the rupture of an aortic aneurism. He died in Princeton Hospital early the next morning at the age of 76. Einstein's remains were cremated and his ashes were scattered[44].

Quotes

Part of the Einstein cult is to quote Einstein ad nauseam, even his most trivial or incorrect remarks.

Irrational remarks by Einstein

  • "Perhaps even more than on its own tradition, the Jewish group has thrived on oppression and on the antagonism it has forever met in the world. Here undoubtly lies one of the main reasons for its continued existence through so many thousands of years."[45]

An irrational remark by Einstein, because no group can "thrive" on being oppressed.

  • "I am not only a pacifist but a militant pacifist. I am willing to fight for peace. Nothing will end war unless the people themselves refuse to go to war." This remark shows that Einstein was a moron who did not understand the meaning of pacifism, because pacifism, by definition, cannot be militant.

Trivial remarks made by Einstein

  • ”As far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain; and as far as they are certain, they do not refer to reality.”[46]

A trivial remark because any child will know that while 1+1=2 mathematically, in some cases, like putting two rabbits on Australia 1+1 can eventually be equal to millions. It is important to note here that Einstein made his remark during a lecture in which he attempted to cast doubt on the validity of the theory of geometry of Euclid, but he never gave a valid counter-example of even the most remote theorem of this theory.

Quotes about Einstein

  • (Revilo Oliver) "Einstein, in his judgement of social and political problems, was a moron, and used his intellectual powers to exert a highly pernicious influence. The world would be better off had he never existed."

See also

External links

References

  1. Hans-Josef, Küpper (2000). Various things about Albert Einstein. einstein-website.de. Retrieved on 18 July 2009.
  2. The Canwell Files: Murder, Arson and Intrigue in the Evergreen State, by M. Kienholz, page 257
  3. Albert Einstein (edition 1924),Relativity: The Special and General Theory, Methuen & Co Ltd
  4. Christopher Jon Bjerknes (2006), The Manufacture and sale of Saint Einstein, pp. 2826, page 2133.
  5. The Nobel Prize in Physics 1921. Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-03-06.
  6. Christopher Jon Bjerknes discusses in paragraph 19.5 of his 2006 book, The Manufacture and sale of Saint Einstein (2826 pages) that Einstein's Nobel price was undeserved.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Clark, R.W. (1984), Einstein: The Life and Times, Avon Books, New York.
  8. 8.00 8.01 8.02 8.03 8.04 8.05 8.06 8.07 8.08 8.09 8.10 Einstein, A. (1945). Albert Einstein Autobiographical Notes, Open Court, Chicago, (1979).
  9. 9.0 9.1 Troemel-Ploetz, Senta, "Mileva Einstein Maric, the woman who did Einstein's mathematics", Women's Studies International Forum, vol. 13, no. 5 (1990). See also: Esterson, A. "Who did Einstein's Mathematics?: A reply to Troemel-Ploetz": http://www.butterfliesandwheels.org/2006/who-did-einstein-s-mathematics-a-response-to-troemel-ploetz/
  10. “Mileva Einstein Maric is the coauthor of "The Theory of Relativity"with Albert Einstein”. http://home.comcast.net/~xtxinc/mileva.htm
  11. Hans Albert Einstein in Whitrow, G.J. (ed.) "Einstein: The Man and his Achievement, 1967, p. 19; [a] Pais, A. "Einstein Lived Here", Oxford University Press, 1994, pp. 1-29; [b] Holton, G. "Einstein, History and Other Passions, Harvard University Press, 1996, pp. 177-193; [c] Stachel, J. "Einstein from B to Z", Birkhäuser, 2002, pp. 26-38; [d] Martinez, A. A., "Mileva Maric": https://webspace.utexas.edu/aam829/1/m/Maric.html
  12. 12.0 12.1 Pais, Abram, "Subtle is the Lord…- The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein", Oxford University Press, 1982.
  13. http://www.deseretnews.com/article/305960/EINSTEIN-BECAME-A-WOMANIZER-MAY-HAVE-BEATEN-WIFE-BOOK-SAYS.html?pg=all
  14. http://www.veteranstoday.com/2013/11/04/was-einstein-a-wife-beater-womanizer-plagiarizer-and-eugenicist-part-i/
  15. Einstein -- womanizer fraud lunatic psychopath 2 2min mark showing an old video of Einstein being pervy to an underage girl
  16. http://www.technologyreview.com/view/427621/did-einsteins-first-wife-secretly-coauthor-his-1905-relativity-paper/
  17. "Albert Einstein," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2007, http://encarta.msn.com © 1997-2007 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
  18. Lightman, Alan and Cohen, Jesse, The Best American Science Writing 2005 , ISBN-13: 9780641829918, Harper Collins Publishers, September 2005
  19. Planck, Max, And Wills, A P (Translated By), Eight Lectures on Theoretical Physics, Dover Publications,03/1998 ISBN-13: 9780486697307 ISBN: 0486697304
  20. "Brown, Robert Brown." WordNet 1.7.1. Princeton University, 2001. Answers.com 20 Oct. 2007. http://www.answers.com/topic/brown-robert-brown
  21. Wheeler, Lynde, Phelps. “Josiah Willard Gibbs - the History of a Great Mind.” Ox Bow Press. ISBN 1-881987-11-6. (1951)
  22. Boltzmann, Ludwig, Lectures on Gas Theory, Dover Publications, 1995, ISBN-13: 9780486684550 ISBN: 0486684555
  23. Keswani, G.H. (1965), "Origin and Concept of Relativity", Brit. J. Phil. Soc. 15:286-306.
  24. http://nobelprize.org/physics/educational/laureates/1906.html
  25. Poincaré, J.H. (1905), "The Principles of Mathematical Physics", The Monist, vol. XV, no. 1, January 1905; from an address delivered before the International Congress of Arts and Sciences, St Louis, September 1904
  26. Einstein, A., Nathan, A., Norden, H., “Einstein on Peace”, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1960
  27. Jon Bjerknes (2006). The Manufacture and Sale of Saint Einstein. page 11.
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3 28.4 28.5 28.6 28.7 28.8 Kevin Macdonald (1998, 2002) The Culture of Critique, 540 pages. ISBN: 0-7596-7221-0
  29. 29.0 29.1 Albert Einstein Archives Online, 2007, http://www.alberteinstein.info/
  30. Khoon, Koh Aik, College Student Journal, March 1, 2007.
  31. 31.0 31.1 Bjerknes, C.J. (2002), Albert Einstein: The Incorrigible Plagiarist, XTX Inc., Dowers Grove.
  32. Albert Einstein: Plagiarist and Fraud. August 31, 2010
  33. http://www.cartesio-episteme.net/st/depretto.htm
  34. 34.0 34.1 DePretto, O. (1903). Atti (Atte).
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 Einstein, A. (1905). Ann. Physik 17:639.
  36. http://nobelprize.org/physics/educational/relativity/history-1.html
  37. Clark, R.W. (1984), Einstein: The Life and Times, Avon Books, New York.
  38. Mosley, Ian (2006), Albert Einstein: Plagiarist and Fraud, European Unity and Rights Organization, Civil Rights
  39. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/relativ/morley.html
  40. http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/physics/pdf/0406/0406009v1.pdf
  41. Carroll, R., "Einstein's E = mc2 'was Italian's idea'", The Guardian, November 11, 1999.
  42. Moody, R., Jr (2001), "Plagiarism Personified", Mensa Bull. 442(Feb):5.
  43. 43.0 43.1 Wilhelm Reich (1953) The Einstein Affair.
  44. O'Connor, J.J. & Robertson, E.F. (1997), "Albert Einstein", The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Andrews
  45. Albert Einstein, Why Do They Hate the Jews?, 1954. In: David E. Rowe & Robert J. Schulmann: Einstein on politics: his private thoughts and public stands on nationalism, Zionism, war, peace, and the bomb. Princeton University Press 2007, p. 308. ISBN 0691120943 Google Books)
  46. Albert Einstein: The Writings of Albert Einstein. Douglas Editions, p. 11 (Google Books)
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