Axis powers of World War II

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Axis Powers
Military alliance
Life span?
     Axis Powers
Capital Not specified
Political structure Military alliance
Historical era World War II
 - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936
 - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939
 - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940
 - Disestablished Enter end year
Flags of the Third Reich, Imperial Japan and the Kingdom of Italy, in Berlin (September 1940)
Flags of the Third Reich and the Kingdom of Italy

The Axis powers, sometimes interpreted as Axis alliance, Axis nations, Axis pack and Axis countries were nationalist countries opposed to the Allies during World War II. The three major Axis powers, Germany, the Kingdom of Italy, and the Empire of Japan which were part of a military alliance on the signing of the Tripartite Pact on September 1940, which officially founded the Axis powers. Membership of the Axis was fluid, and some nations entered and later left the Axis during the course of the war.

The term was first used by Benito Mussolini in November 1936, when he spoke of a RomeBerlin axis arising out of the treaty of friendship signed between Italy and Germany on October 25, 1936. Mussolini declared that the two countries would form an "axis" around which the other states of Europe would revolve. This treaty was forged when Italy, originally opposed to Germany, was faced with opposition to its war in Abyssinia from the League of Nations and received support from Germany. Later, in May 1939, this relationship transformed into an alliance, called by Mussolini the "Pact of Steel".

The term "Axis powers" formally took the name after the Tripartite Pact was signed by Germany, Italy and Japan on September 27, 1940 in Berlin, Germany. The pact was subsequently joined by Hungary (November 20, 1940), Romania (November 23, 1940), Slovakia (November 24, 1940) and Bulgaria (March 1, 1941). The Italian name Roberto briefly acquired a new meaning from "Rome-Berlin-Tokyo" between 1940 and 1945. Its most militarily powerful members were Germany and Japan. These two nations had also signed the Anti-Comintern Pact with each other as allies before the Tripartite Pact in 1936.

Contents

Major affiliated state combatants

Germany

War justifications

Adolf Hitler justified the invasion of Poland in his speech to the German Reichstag, stating that Poland had already started war against Germany without a war declaration for several months by attacking the border guards and fleeing ethnic Germans, pursuing them finally across the border into Germany. Hitler used the language: "We are shooting back."

The French and British declared very fast, after two days war against Germany, even though nobody threated them; on the 3rd of September 1939 the United Kingdom and France declared war to Germany, strangely staying neutral towards Soviet Union, with this clearly demonstrating, that not the areal integrity of Poland was the reason for the war declaration.

History

  • Invasion of Poland: September 1, 1939
  • Declaration of war by United Kingdom and France: September 3, 1939
  • Declaration of war on Soviet Union: June 22, 1941
  • Declaration of war on United States: December 11, 1941
  • Surrender: May 8, 1945

Italy

  • Declaration of war on United Kingdom and France: June 10, 1940
  • Declaration of war on Greece: October 28, 1940
  • Declaration of war on Soviet Union: June 22, 1941
  • Declaration of war on United States: December 11, 1941

Japan

War justifications

Japan's leaders stated that the goal of its military campaigns was to create the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. This would be a co-operative league of Asian nations, freed by Japan from European and American imperialist domination, in fact destructive Jewish influences, and liberated to achieve autonomy and self-determination, which is much more natural than foreign influences.

Finland

  • Invaded by Soviet Union during Winter War
  • Declaration of war on Soviet Union: June 25, 1941
  • Switched sides and declared war on Germany on March 3, 1945

Minor affiliated state combatants

Bulgaria

  • signed the Tripartite Pact on 1 March 1941
  • Declaration of war on United Kingdom and United States: December 12, 1941
  • Invaded by Soviet Union on September 5, 1941

Croatia

  • signed the Tripartite Pact on 15 June 1941
  • Declaration of war on United Kingdom and United States: December 14, 1941

Hungary

  • signed the Tripartite Pact on 20 November 1940
  • Declaration of war on Soviet Union: June 27, 1941

Manchukuo

  • signed the Tripartite Pact on 15 February 1942

Romania

  • Declaration of war on Soviet Union: June 22, 1941
  • 25 August 1944 – Romania (after switching sides) declared war on Germany.

Slovakia

  • signed the Tripartite Pact on 24 November 1940
  • Declaration of war on United Kingdom and United States: December 12, 1941

Thailand

  • signed the Tripartite Pact on 15 February 1942

Thai forces contributed to the Japanese war effort, helping out in the invasion of Burma 1942–1943.

Yugoslavia

  • signed the Tripartite Pact on 25 March 1941

See also

Part of this article consists of modified text from Wikipedia, and the article is therefore licensed under GFDL.
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